Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON)

1 January 2014 - 30 November 2015

Lead Scientist: Scot Martin

Observatory: amf, mao

The hydrologic cycle of the Amazon Basin is one of the primary heat engines of the Southern Hemisphere. Any accurate climate model must succeed in a good description of the basin, both in its natural state and in states perturbed by regional and global human activities. However, tropical deep convection in a natural state is poorly understood and modeled, with insufficient observational data sets for model constraint. Also, future climate scenarios resulting from human activities globally show the possible drying and the eventual possible conversion of rainforest to savanna in response to global climate change. Based on the current state of knowledge, the governing conditions of this catastrophic change are not defined. Human activities locally, including the economic development activities that are growing the population and the industry within the basin, also have the potential to shift regional climate, most immediately by an increment in aerosol number and mass concentrations. The shift is across the range of values to which cloud properties are most sensitive. The ARM Climate Research Facility in the Amazon Basin sought to understand aerosol and cloud life cycles, particularly the susceptibility to cloud aerosol precipitation interactions, within the Amazon Basin. The ARM Mobile Facility was located downwind of the city of Manaus, Brazil (3 6' 47" S, 60 1' 31" W) near Manacapuru from January 2014 to November 2015. The site was situated so that it experienced the extremes of (i) a pristine atmosphere when the Manaus pollution plume meandered and (ii) heavy pollution and the interactions of that pollution with the natural environment when the plume regularly intersected the site. The central Amazon, where this site was located, is only weakly influenced by biomass-burning emissions in the dry season. The city of Manaus uses high-sulfur oil as its primary source of electricity. The city also is an industrial zone of 3 million people and has high emissions of soot. Particle number and mass concentrations are 10 to 100 times greater in the pollution plume compared with the times when pristine conditions prevail. The deployment enabled the study of how aerosol and cloud life cycles, including cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions, are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity. Legend for the “Campaign Data Sets: View"

  • Aerial Facility = Aerial Facility G-1
  • Manaus, Brazil = Site T1
  • Iranduba, Brazil = Site T2
  • Manacapuru, Brazil = Site T3

Instruments at the top of the Eddy Flux Tower measured key environmental variables, such as light and temperature, that drive canopy carbon emissions.

Instruments at the top of the Eddy Flux Tower measured key environmental variables, such as light and temperature, that drive canopy carbon emissions.


Jeffrey Chambers Michael Jensen Stephen Schwartz
Manvendra Dubey Ralph Kahn John Shilling
Jiwen Fan Larry Kleinman Jun Wang
Jerome Fast Zhiming Kuang Jian Wang
Graham Feingold J. Vanderlei Martins Steven Wofsy
Scott Giangrande Loretta Mickley
Daniel Jacob Courtney Schumacher


  • Child Campaign


Barahona D, K Breen, H Kalesse-Los, and J Röttenbacher. 2024. "Deep Learning Parameterization of Vertical Wind Velocity Variability via Constrained Adversarial Training." Artificial Intelligence for the Earth Systems, 3(1), 10.1175/AIES-D-23-0025.1.

Dorsey KS, CB Ireland, ME Mundy, RA Stafford, KK Palmer, MR Wasem, ME Prichard, JM Comstock, and I Silber. 2024. 2023 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Annual Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-23-047. 10.2172/2281709.

Tao C, S Xie, H Ma, P Bechtold, Z Cui, P Vaillancourt, K Van Weverberg, Y Wang, M Wong, J Yang, G Zhang, I Choi, S Tang, J Wei, W Wu, M Zhang, J Neelin, and X Zeng. 2024. "Diurnal cycle of precipitation over the tropics and central United States: intercomparison of general circulation models." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 150(759), 10.1002/qj.4629.
Research Highlight

Nie Y, X Li, Q Paletta, M Aragon, A Scott, and A Brandt. 2024. "Open-source sky image datasets for solar forecasting with deep learning: A comprehensive survey." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 189, 113977, 10.1016/j.rser.2023.113977.


Wang D and MJ Bartholomew. 2023. Laser Disdrometer (LDIS) Instrument Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-137. 10.2172/1226796.

Carneiro R, C Borges, C Santos, G de Oliveira, I Stachlewska, G Fisch, and C dos Santos. 2023. "Energy balance closure and evapotranspiration hysteresis in central Amazon under contrasting conditions during the GoAmazon project in 2014 and 2015." Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 132, 104686, 10.1016/j.jsames.2023.104686.

D'Oliveira F, C Dias-Júnior, J Cohen, D Spracklen, E Marques Filho, and P Artaxo. 2023. "Effects of the river breeze on the transport of gases in Central Amazonia." Atmospheric Research, 295, 107010, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2023.107010.

Dolan B, S Saleeby, S Rutledge, S van den Heever, and K Van Valkenburg. 2023. "A statistical framework for evaluating rain microphysics in model simulations and disdrometer observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 128(18), e2023JD038902, 10.1029/2023JD038902.

Mendonça A, C Dias-Júnior, O Acevedo, R Santana, F Costa, R Negrón-Juarez, A Manzi, S Trumbore, and D Marra. 2023. "Turbulence regimes in the nocturnal roughness sublayer: Interaction with deep convection and tree mortality in the Amazon." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 339, 109526, 10.1016/j.agrformet.2023.109526.

Mayta V and Á Adames Corraliza. 2023. "Is the Madden‐Julian Oscillation a Moisture Mode?" Geophysical Research Letters, 50(15), e2023GL103002, 10.1029/2023GL103002.

View All Related Publications

Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Rachel Albrecht Very Low Frequency Sensor Order Data
Lizabeth Alexander Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Order Data
Paulo Artaxo Aerosol Data Order Data
Henrique Barbosa Lidar Comparison Order Data
Mary Jane Bartholomew Rain Gauge Order Data
Thiago Biscaro S-band Radar Order Data
Thiago Biscaro X-Band Radar Order Data
Peter Buseck Transmission Electron Microscopy Images Order Data
Duli Chand Nephelometer Order Data
Duli Chand Particle Soot Absorption Photometer - G-1 Aircraft Order Data
Jennifer Comstock 2D-S Particle Size Order Data
Jennifer Comstock Cloud Droplet Probe Order Data
Jennifer Comstock Cloud Particle Imager (CPI) Order Data
Jennifer Comstock Merged Data Order Data
Jennifer Comstock Water Content Monitor Order Data
Manvendra Dubey Atmospheric Data Order Data
Manvendra Dubey Picarro Gas Monitor Order Data
Zhe Feng Radar Wind Profiler - W-band Cloud Radar - Active Remote Sensing of Clouds Order Data
Scott Giangrande 50 and 915 RWP Order Data
Scott Giangrande disdro Order Data
Allen Goldstein Aerosol Gas Chromatograph Order Data
Alex Guenther Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer Order Data
John Hubbe Ambient Winds- AIMMS Order Data
Kolby Jardine Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer Order Data
Jose-Luis Jimenez Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer Order Data
Jose-Luis Jimenez Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Order Data
Saewung Kim Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer Order Data
Chongai Kuang Condensation Particle Counter Order Data
Chongai Kuang Nano Particle Size Distribution (NPSD) Order Data
Alexander Laskin Impactor Data Order Data
Chuck Long Sunshine Pyranometer Order Data
Scot Martin Harvard Bounce Apparatus Order Data
Scot Martin Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer Order Data
Fan Mei Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter Order Data
Fan Mei Condensation Particle Counter Order Data
Fan Mei Fast Cloud Droplet Probe (FCDP) Order Data
Fan Mei High Volume Precip Spectrometer Order Data
Fan Mei meteorology/state/position parameters Order Data
Sarah Paralovo Particulate Matter and Gases Order Data
Heath Powers SKIP- Logger Data Order Data
Courtney Schumacher Parsivel Disdrometer Order Data
Courtney Schumacher S-band Radar Order Data
Courtney Schumacher S-band Radar - Rain Rates Order Data
Courtney Schumacher Sondes Order Data
Arthur Sedlacek Single Particle Soot Photometer Order Data
Arthur Sedlacek aethalometer Order Data
Gunnar Senum Impactor Data Order Data
Gunnar Senum Nephelometer Order Data
Gunnar Senum Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
John Shilling Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer Order Data
John Shilling Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Order Data
James Smith Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer Order Data
Stephen Springston Carbon Monoxide and Nitrous Oxide Order Data
Stephen Springston Carbon Monoxide and Nitrous Oxide Order Data
Stephen Springston Met Order Data
Stephen Springston Particle Soot Absorption Photometer - G-1 Aircraft Order Data
Mitchell Thayer Laser-Induced Instruments Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Video - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Jian Wang Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter Order Data
Jian Wang Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer Order Data
Shaocheng Xie Objective Analysis of Large Scale Forcing Data (VARANAL) Order Data

MAO Data Sources

Name Full Name Browse Data
ACSM Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor Browse Data
AERI Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Browse Data
AERINF AERI Noise Filtered Browse Data
AETH Aethalometer Browse Data
AIP Aerosol Intensive Properties Browse Data
AOD-MFRSR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) derived from MFRSR measurements Browse Data
AOP Aerosol Optical Properties Browse Data
AOS Aerosol Observing System Browse Data
AOSCCNAVG Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei data, averaged Browse Data
AOSMET Meteorological Measurements associated with the Aerosol Observing System Browse Data
AOSSP2BC Aerosol Observing System Single Particle Soot Photometer Black Carbon Browse Data
ARMBE ARM Best Estimate Data Products Browse Data
CCN Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter Browse Data
CEIL Ceilometer Browse Data
CEILPBLHT Boundary-layer height data with CEIL Browse Data
CLAP Continuous Light Absorption Photometer Browse Data
CO-ANALYZER Carbon Monoxide Analyzer Browse Data
CPC Condensation Particle Counter Browse Data
CSPHOT Sunphotometer Browse Data
DL Doppler Lidar Browse Data
DLPROF-WIND Doppler Lidar Horizontal Wind Profiles Browse Data
DLPROF-WSTATS Doppler Lidar Wind Statistics Profiles Browse Data
ECMWFDIAG European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses Browse Data
ECOR Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Browse Data
GNDRAD Ground Radiometers on Stand for Upwelling Radiation Browse Data
INTERPSONDE Interpolated Sonde Browse Data
IRT Infrared Thermometer Browse Data
LDIS Laser Disdrometer Browse Data
LDQUANTS Laser Disdrometer Quantities Browse Data
MET Surface Meteorological Instrumentation Browse Data
MFR Multifilter Radiometer Browse Data
MFRSR Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Browse Data
MFRSRCLDOD Cloud Optical Properties from MFRSR Using Min Algorithm Browse Data
MICROBASEKAPLUS improved MICROBASE product with Uncertainties Browse Data
MPL Micropulse Lidar Browse Data
MPLCMASK Cloud mask from Micropulse Lidar Browse Data
MWR Microwave Radiometer Browse Data
MWR3C Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel Browse Data
MWRHF Microwave Radiometer - High Frequency Browse Data
MWRP Microwave Radiometer Profiler Browse Data
MWRRET MWR Retrievals Browse Data
NEPHELOMETER Nephelometer Browse Data
NFOV Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer Browse Data
NOX Nitrogen Oxides Monitor Browse Data
OZONE Ozone Monitor Browse Data
PASS Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer Browse Data
PBLHT Planetary Boundary Layer Height Browse Data
PSAP Particle Soot Absorption Photometer Browse Data
QCECOR Quality Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement Browse Data
QCRAD Data Quality Assessment for ARM Radiation Data Browse Data
RADFLUXANAL Radiative Flux Analysis Browse Data
RAIN Rain Gauge Browse Data
RWP Radar Wind Profiler Browse Data
SASHE Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric Browse Data
SASZE Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith Browse Data
SEBS Surface Energy Balance System Browse Data
SKYRAD Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation Browse Data
SMPS Scanning mobility particle sizer Browse Data
SO2 Sulfur Dioxide Monitor Browse Data
SODAR Mini Sound Detection and Ranging Browse Data
SONDE Balloon-Borne Sounding System Browse Data
SONDEGRID Gridded Sonde VAP Product Browse Data
SONDEPARAM convective parameters derived from radiosonde data Browse Data
TSI Total Sky Imager Browse Data
UHSAS Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Browse Data
VARANAL Constrained Variational Analysis Browse Data
VISST Minnis Cloud Products Using Visst Algorithm Browse Data
WACR W-Band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data
WACRARSCL W-band Cloud Radar Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Browse Data