rain: Rain Gauge

A rain gauge (RAIN) gathers and measures the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time. ARM uses many types of rain gauges at its climate research facilities.

The tipping bucket rain gauge consists of a funnel that collects and directs precipitation into a seesaw container that tips after a pre-set amount of liquid enters. When the seesaw tips, it sends an electrical signal that is counted by a recording device.

The weighing precipitation gauge consists of a storage container, which is weighted to record the mass of precipitation. Some models measure the mass of precipitation using a pen on a rotating drum or by using a vibrating wire attached to a data logger. The advantage of this type of rain gauge is that it can measure all forms of precipitation.

Disdrometers are used with rain gauges to add details about the precipitation being gathered. They are capable of measuring the velocity and size distribution of precipitation, measurements important for studying the evolution of water droplets.

Measurements

Locations

  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

2020

Chase R, S Nesbitt, and G McFarquhar. 2020. "Evaluation of the Microphysical Assumptions within GPM-DPR Using Ground-Based Observations of Rain and Snow." Atmosphere, 11(6), 10.3390/atmos11060619.

2019

Varble A, S Nesbitt, P Salio, E Avila, P Borque, P DeMott, G McFarquhar, S van den Heever, E Zipser, D Gochis, R Houze, M Jensen, P Kollias, S Kreidenweis, R Leung, K Rasmussen, D Romps, and C Williams. 2019. Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-19-028.

Tridon F, C Planche, K MROZ, S Banson, A Battaglia, J Van Baelen, and W Wobrock. 2019. "On the realism of the rain microphysics representation of a squall line in the WRF model. Part I: Evaluation with multi-frequency cloud radar Doppler spectra observations." Monthly Weather Review, 147(8), 10.1175/MWR-D-18-0018.1.

Hartten L, P Johnston, V Rodríguez Castro, and P Esteban Pérez. 2019. "Post-Deployment Calibration of a Tropical UHF Profiling Radar via Surface- and Satellite-Based Methods." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 36(9), 10.1175/JTECH-D-18-0020.1.

2018

Bao J and S Sherwood. 2018. "The role of convective self‐aggregation in extreme instantaneous versus daily precipitation." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 11(1), 10.1029/2018MS001503.

Naud C, J Booth, and F Lamraoui. 2018. "Post Cold Frontal Clouds at the ARM Eastern North Atlantic Site: An Examination of the Relationship Between Large-Scale Environment and Low-Level Cloud Properties." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(21), 10.1029/2018JD029015.
Research Highlight

Emerson E, J Katich, J Schwarz, G McMeeking, and D Farmer. 2018. "Direct Measurements of Dry and Wet Deposition of Black Carbon Over a Grassland." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(21), 10.1029/2018JD028954.

Wang J, X Dong, and B Xi. 2018. "Investigation of Liquid Cloud Microphysical Properties of Deep Convective Systems: 2. Parameterization of Raindrop Size Distribution and its Application for Convective Rain Estimation." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(20), 10.1029/2018JD028727.

Pei B and F Testik. 2018. "A Regression-Free Rainfall Estimation Algorithm for Dual-Polarization Radars." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 35(8), 10.1175/JTECH-D-17-0201.1.

Zhuang Y, R Fu, and H Wang. 2018. "How do environmental conditions influence vertical buoyancy structure and shallow-to-deep convection transition across different climate regimes?" Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 75(6), 10.1175/JAS-D-17-0284.1.


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