rain: Rain Gauge

A rain gauge (RAIN) gathers and measures the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time. ARM uses many types of rain gauges at its climate research facilities.

The tipping bucket rain gauge consists of a funnel that collects and directs precipitation into a seesaw container that tips after a pre-set amount of liquid enters. When the seesaw tips, it sends an electrical signal that is counted by a recording device.

The weighing precipitation gauge consists of a storage container, which is weighted to record the mass of precipitation. Some models measure the mass of precipitation using a pen on a rotating drum or by using a vibrating wire attached to a data logger. The advantage of this type of rain gauge is that it can measure all forms of precipitation.

Optical rain gauges use the blockage of a beam of light to infer rain intensity.

Acoustic rain gauges use a hydrophone to sense the sound signatures for each drop as rain strikes a surface.

Disdrometers are used with rain gauges to add details about the precipitation being gathered. They are capable of measuring the velocity and size distribution of precipitation, measurements important for studying the evolution of water droplets.

Measurements

Locations

  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Related Publications

2016

Giangrande SE, T Toto, MP Jensen, M Bartholomew, Z Feng, A Protat, C Williams, C Schumacher, and L Machado. 2016. "Convective cloud vertical velocity and mass-flux characteristics from radar wind profiler observations during GoAmazon2014/5." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121(21), 10.1002/2016JD025303. ONLINE.

2015

Jensen MP, WA Petersen, A Bansemer, N Bharadwaj, LD Carey, DJ Cecil, SM Collis, AD Del Genio, B Dolan, J Gerlach, SE Giangrande, A Heymsfield, G Heymsfield, P Kollias, TJ Lang, SW Nesbitt, A Neumann, M Poellot, SA Rutledge, M Schwaller, A Tokay, CR Williams, DB Wolff, S Xie, and EJ Zipser. 2015. "The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, , doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00228.1. ONLINE.

Rauniyar SP and KJ Walsh. 2015. "Spatial and temporal variations in rainfall over Darwin and its vicinity during different large-scale environments." Climate Dynamics, , doi:10.1007/s00382-015-2606-1.

Mechem DB, SE Giangrande, CS Wittman, P Borque, T Toto, and P Kollias. 2015. "Insights from modeling and observational evaluation of a precipitating continental cumulus event observed during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment field campaign." Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 120(5), doi:10.1002/2014JD022255.

2014

Deng M, P Kollias, Z Feng, C Zhang, CN Long, H Kalesse, A Chandra, VV Kumar, and A Protat. 2014. "Stratiform and Convective Precipitation Observed by Multiple Radars during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 53(11), 10.1175/JAMC-D-13-0311.1.

Yano J and TP Lane. 2014. "Convectively generated gravity waves simulated by NAM-SCA." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119(15), 10.1002/2013JD021419.

Giangrande SE, M Bartholomew, M Pope, S Collis, and MP Jensen. 2014. "A Summary of Precipitation Characteristics from the 2006-2011 Northern Australian Wet Seasons as Revealed by ARM Disdrometer Research Facilities (Darwin, Australia)." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 53, 10.1175/JAMC-D-13-0222.1.

Mann JA, JC Chiu, RJ Hogan, EJ O'Connor, TS L'Ecuyer, TH Stein, and A Jefferson. 2014. "Aerosol impacts on drizzle properties in warm clouds from ARM Mobile Facility maritime and continental deployments." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119(7), 10.1002/2013JD021339.

2013

Yoneyama K, C Zhang, and CN Long. 2013. "Tracking Pulses of the Madden–Julian Oscillation." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94(12), 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00157.1.

Wu D, B Xi, Z Feng, A Kennedy, M Grenchen, G Matt, and T W-K. 2013. "The impact of various WRF single-moment microphysics parameterizations on squall line precipitation events." Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 118, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50798.


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