rain > Rain GaugeInstrument Type(s) > Baseline • Guest

A rain gauge (RAIN) gathers and measures the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time. ARM uses many types of rain gauges at its climate research facilities.

The tipping bucket rain gauge consists of a funnel that collects and directs precipitation into a seesaw container that tips after a pre-set amount of liquid enters. When the seesaw tips, it sends an electrical signal that is counted by a recording device.

The weighing precipitation gauge consists of a storage container, which is weighted to record the mass of precipitation. Some models measure the mass of precipitation using a pen on a rotating drum or by using a vibrating wire attached to a data logger. The advantage of this type of rain gauge is that it can measure all forms of precipitation.

Disdrometers are used with rain gauges to add details about the precipitation being gathered. They are capable of measuring the velocity and size distribution of precipitation, measurements important for studying the evolution of water droplets.

Measurements

Locations

  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Active Locations

Facility Name Start Date
Gunnison, CO; AMF2 (main site for SAIL) 2021-09-01

2021

Russell LM, D Lubin, I Silber, E Eloranta, J Muelmenstaedt, S Burrows, A Aiken, D Wang, M Petters, M Miller, A Ackerman, A Fridlind, M Witte, M Lebsock, D Painemal, R Chang, J Liggio, and M Wheeler. 2021. Eastern Pacific Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (EPCAPE) Science Plan. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-21-009.

Shupe M, D Chu, D Costa, C Cox, J Creamean, G de Boer, K Dethloff, R Engelmann, M Gallagher, E Hunke, W Maslowski, A McComiskey, J Osborn, O Persson, H Powers, K Pratt, D Randall, A Solomon, M Tjernstrom, D Turner, J Uin, T Uttal, J Verlinde, and D Wagner. 2021. Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-21-007.

Varble A, S Nesbitt, P Salio, J Hardin, N Bharadwaj, P Borque, P DeMott, Z Feng, T Hill, J Marquis, A Matthews, F Mei, R Öktem, V Castro, L Goldberger, A Hunzinger, K Barry, S Kreidenweis, G McFarquhar, L McMurdie, M Pekour, H Powers, D Romps, C Saulo, B Schmid, J Tomlinson, S van den Heever, A Zelenyuk, Z Zhang, and E Zipser. 2021. "Utilizing a Storm-Generating Hotspot to Study Convective Cloud Transitions: The CACTI Experiment." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, , 10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0030.1. ONLINE.

Loeb N and A Kennedy. 2021. "Blowing Snow at McMurdo Station, Antarctica during the AWARE Field Campaign: Surface and Ceilometer Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(7), e2020JD033935, 10.1029/2020JD033935.

Tang S, P Gleckler, S Xie, J Lee, M Ahn, C Covey, and C Zhang. 2021. "Evaluating Diurnal and Semi-Diurnal Cycle of Precipitation in CMIP6 Models Using Satellite- and Ground-Based Observations." Journal of Climate, , 10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0639.1.

Geerts B, G McFarquhar, L Xue, M Jensen, P Kollias, M Ovchinnikov, M Shupe, P DeMott, Y Wang, M Tjernstrom, P Field, S Abel, T Spengler, R Neggers, S Crewell, M Wendisch, and C Lupkes. 2021. Cold-Air Outbreaks in the Marine Boundary Layer Experiment (COMBLE) Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-21-001.

2020

Chase R, S Nesbitt, and G McFarquhar. 2020. "Evaluation of the Microphysical Assumptions within GPM-DPR Using Ground-Based Observations of Rain and Snow." Atmosphere, 11(6), 10.3390/atmos11060619.

2019

Varble A, S Nesbitt, P Salio, E Avila, P Borque, P DeMott, G McFarquhar, S van den Heever, E Zipser, D Gochis, R Houze, M Jensen, P Kollias, S Kreidenweis, R Leung, K Rasmussen, D Romps, and C Williams. 2019. Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-19-028.

Tridon F, C Planche, K MROZ, S Banson, A Battaglia, J Van Baelen, and W Wobrock. 2019. "On the realism of the rain microphysics representation of a squall line in the WRF model. Part I: Evaluation with multi-frequency cloud radar Doppler spectra observations." Monthly Weather Review, 147(8), 10.1175/MWR-D-18-0018.1.

Hartten L, P Johnston, V Rodríguez Castro, and P Esteban Pérez. 2019. "Post-Deployment Calibration of a Tropical UHF Profiling Radar via Surface- and Satellite-Based Methods." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 36(9), 10.1175/JTECH-D-18-0020.1.


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