rain: Rain Gauge

A rain gauge (RAIN) gathers and measures the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time. ARM uses many types of rain gauges at its climate research facilities.

The tipping bucket rain gauge consists of a funnel that collects and directs precipitation into a seesaw container that tips after a pre-set amount of liquid enters. When the seesaw tips, it sends an electrical signal that is counted by a recording device.

The weighing precipitation gauge consists of a storage container, which is weighted to record the mass of precipitation. Some models measure the mass of precipitation using a pen on a rotating drum or by using a vibrating wire attached to a data logger. The advantage of this type of rain gauge is that it can measure all forms of precipitation.

Disdrometers are used with rain gauges to add details about the precipitation being gathered. They are capable of measuring the velocity and size distribution of precipitation, measurements important for studying the evolution of water droplets.

Measurements

Locations

  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Related Publications

2018

Naud C, J Booth, and F Lamraoui. 2018. "Post Cold Frontal Clouds at the ARM Eastern North Atlantic Site: An Examination of the Relationship Between Large-Scale Environment and Low-Level Cloud Properties." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(21), 10.1029/2018JD029015.
Research Highlight

Wang J, X Dong, and B Xi. 2018. "Investigation of Liquid Cloud Microphysical Properties of Deep Convective Systems: 2. Parameterization of Raindrop Size Distribution and its Application for Convective Rain Estimation." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, , 10.1029/2018JD028727. ONLINE.

Wang J, X Dong, and B Xi. 2018. "Investigation of Liquid Cloud Microphysical Properties of Deep Convective Systems: 2. Parameterization of Raindrop Size Distribution and its Application for Convective Rain Estimation." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(20), 10.1029/2018JD028727.

Pei B and F Testik. 2018. "A Regression-Free Rainfall Estimation Algorithm for Dual-Polarization Radars." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 35(8), 10.1175/JTECH-D-17-0201.1.

Zhuang Y, R Fu, and H Wang. 2018. "How do environmental conditions influence vertical buoyancy structure and shallow-to-deep convection transition across different climate regimes?" Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 75(6), 10.1175/JAS-D-17-0284.1.

2016

Schiro KA, JD Neelin, DK Adams, and BR Lintner. 2016. "Deep Convection and Column Water Vapor over Tropical Land versus Tropical Ocean: A Comparison between the Amazon and the Tropical Western Pacific." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 73(10), 10.1175/jas-d-16-0119.1.

Giangrande SE, T Toto, MP Jensen, M Bartholomew, Z Feng, A Protat, C Williams, C Schumacher, and L Machado. 2016. "Convective cloud vertical velocity and mass-flux characteristics from radar wind profiler observations during GoAmazon2014/5." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121(21), 10.1002/2016jd025303.
Research Highlight

Jensen MP, WA Petersen, A Bansemer, N Bharadwaj, LD Carey, DJ Cecil, SM Collis, AD Del Genio, B Dolan, J Gerlach, SE Giangrande, G Heymsfield, P Kollias, TJ Lang, SW Nesbitt, A Neumann, M Poellot, SA Rutledge, M Schwaller, A Tokay, CR Williams, DB Wolff, S Xie, and EJ Zipser. 2016. "The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 97(9), 10.1175/bams-d-14-00228.1.
Research Highlight

Wang J, X Dong, B Xi, and H Andrew. 2016. "Investigation of liquid cloud microphysical properties of deep convective systems: 1. Parameterization of rain drop size distribution and its application for stratiform rain estimate." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121(18), 10.1002/2016jd024941.
Research Highlight

Gerken T, D Wei, RJ Chase, JD Fuentes, C Schumacher, LA Machado, RV Andreoli, M Chamecki, RA Ferreira de Souza, LS Freire, AB Jardine, AO Manzi, RM Nascimento dos Santos, C von Randow, P dos Santos Costa, PC Stoy, J Tota, and AM Trowbridge. 2016. "Downward transport of ozone rich air and implications for atmospheric chemistry in the Amazon rainforest." Atmospheric Environment, 124(Part A), 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.11.014.


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