tsi > Total Sky ImagerInstrument Type(s) > Baseline • External • Guest

The total sky imager (TSI) measures the fraction of the sky view covered by clouds.

It provides time series of hemispheric sky images during daylight hours and retrievals of fractional sky cover for periods when the solar elevation is greater than 10 degrees. To view current sky cover retrievals at the ARM sites, see the TSI most recent sky images.

Primary Derived Measurements


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3


Shin H, L Xue, W Li, G Firl, D D’Amico, D Muñoz‐Esparza, M Ek, Y Chu, Z Wang, W Gustafson, and A Vogelmann. 2021. "Large‐Scale Forcing Impact on the Development of Shallow Convective Clouds Revealed from LASSO Large‐Eddy Simulations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, , e2021JD035208, 10.1029/2021JD035208.

Riihimaki L, X Li, Z Hou, and L Berg. 2021. "Improving prediction of surface solar irradiance variability by integrating observed cloud characteristics and machine learning." Solar Energy, 225, 10.1016/j.solener.2021.07.047.

Smith E, B Greene, T Bell, W Blumberg, R Wakefield, D Reif, Q Niu, Q Wang, and D Turner. 2021. "Evaluation and Applications of Multi-Instrument Boundary-Layer Thermodynamic Retrievals." Boundary-Layer Meteorology, , 10.1007/s10546-021-00640-2.

Villefranque N and R Hogan. 2021. "Evidence for the 3D radiative effects of boundary‐layer clouds from observations of direct and diffuse surface solar fluxes." Geophysical Research Letters, 48(14), e2021GL093369, 10.1029/2021GL093369.

Russell LM, D Lubin, I Silber, E Eloranta, J Muelmenstaedt, S Burrows, A Aiken, D Wang, M Petters, M Miller, A Ackerman, A Fridlind, M Witte, M Lebsock, D Painemal, R Chang, J Liggio, and M Wheeler. 2021. Eastern Pacific Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (EPCAPE) Science Plan. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-21-009.

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