tsi: Total Sky Imager

The total sky imager (TSI) measures the fraction of the sky view covered by clouds.

It provides time series of hemispheric sky images during daylight hours and retrievals of fractional sky cover for periods when the solar elevation is greater than 10 degrees. To view current sky cover retrievals at the ARM sites, see the TSI most recent sky images.



  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Active Instrument Locations

Facility Name Instrument Start Date
Graciosa Island, Azores, Portugal 2013-10-01


Riihimaki LD, T Shippert, and DD Turner. 2019. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Optimal Estimation (AERIoe) Value-Added Product Report . Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-234.

Varble A, S Nesbitt, P Salio, E Avila, P Borque, P DeMott, G McFarquhar, S van den Heever, E Zipser, D Gochis, R Houze, M Jensen, P Kollias, S Kreidenweis, R Leung, K Rasmussen, D Romps, and C Williams. 2019. Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-19-028.

Tao C, Y Zhang, S Tang, Q Tang, H Ma, S Xie, and M Zhang. 2019. "Regional Moisture Budget and Land‐Atmosphere Coupling over the U.S. Southern Great Plains Inferred from the ARM Long‐Term Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(17-18), 10.1029/2019JD030585.

Lim K, L Riihimaki, Y Shi, D Flynn, J Kleiss, L Berg, W Gustafson, Y Zhang, and K Johnson. 2019. "Long-term retrievals of cloud type and fair-weather shallow cumulus events at the ARM SGP site." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 36(10), 10.1175/JTECH-D-18-0215.1.

Boyd S, S Sorenson, S Richard, M King, and M Greenslit. 2019. "Analysis algorithm for sky type and ice halo recognition in all-sky images." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 12(8), 10.5194/amt-12-4241-2019.

Yang W, A Marshak, and G Wen. 2019. "Cloud edge properties measured by the ARM shortwave spectrometer over ocean and land." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(15), doi: 10.1029/2019JD030622.
Research Highlight

Jensen M, E Bruning, D Collins, A Fridlind, P Kollias, C Kuang, D Rosenfeld, A Ryzhkov, A Varble, SD Brooks, S Collis, E Defer, J Fan, J Flynn, S Giangrande, R Griffin, J Hu, R Jackson, M Kumjian, T Logan, T Matsui, G McFarquhar, C Nowotarski, J Quaas, M Oue, R Sheesley, J Snyder, P Stier, S Usenko, S van den Heever, M van Lier Walqui, Y Wang, Y Xu, and G Zhang. 2019. Tracking Aerosol Convection Interactions ExpeRiment (TRACER) Science Plan. Ed. by Robert Stafford, DOE/SC-ARM-19-017.

McFarquhar G, R Marchand, C Bretherton, S Alexander, A Protat, S Siems, R Wood, and P DeMott. 2019. Measurements of Aerosols, Radiation, and Clouds over the Southern Ocean (MARCUS) Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-19-008.

Noble S and J Hudson. 2019. "Effects of Continental Clouds on Surface Aitken and Accumulation Modes." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(10), doi:10.1029/2019JD030297.

Neggers R, P Griewank, and T Heus. 2019. "Powerlaw scaling in the internal variability of cumulus cloud size distributions due to subsampling and spatial organization." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 76(6), doi:10.1175/JAS-D-18-0194.1.

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