tsi: Total Sky Imager

The total sky imager (TSI) measures the fraction of the sky view covered by clouds.

It provides time series of hemispheric sky images during daylight hours and retrievals of fractional sky cover for periods when the solar elevation is greater than 10 degrees. To view current sky cover retrievals at the ARM sites, see the TSI most recent sky images.



  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Active Instrument Locations

Facility Name Instrument Start Date
Graciosa Island, Azores, Portugal 2013-10-01
Oliktok Point, Alaska; AMF3 2015-08-01
Central Facility, Lamont, OK 2000-07-01
Central Facility, Barrow AK 2006-04-25
Lamont, OK (Extended, Shipping) 2016-12-15


Riley E, J Kleiss, L Riihimaki, C Long, L Berg, and E Kassianov. 2020. "Shallow cumuli cover and its uncertainties from ground-based lidar-radar data and sky images." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 13(4), 10.5194/amt-13-2099-2020.

Pennypacker S, M Diamond, and R Wood. 2020. "Ultra-clean and smoky marine boundary layers frequently occur in the same season over the southeast Atlantic." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(4), 10.5194/acp-20-2341-2020.

Lubin D, D Zhang, I Silber, R Scott, P Kalogeras, A Battaglia, D Bromwich, M Cadeddu, E Eloranta, A Fridlind, A Frossard, K Hines, S Kneifel, W Leaitch, W Lin, J Nicolas, H Powers, P Quinn, P Rowe, L Russell, S Sharma, J Verlinde, and A Vogelmann. 2020. "AWARE: The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 101(7), 10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0278.1.

Gustafson W, A Vogelmann, Z Li, X Cheng, K Dumas, S Endo, K Johnson, B Krishna, T Toto, and H Xiao. 2020. "The Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Activity for Continental Shallow Convection." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 101(4), 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0065.1.
Research Highlight


Riihimaki LD, T Shippert, and DD Turner. 2019. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Optimal Estimation (AERIoe) Value-Added Product Report . Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-234.

Varble A, S Nesbitt, P Salio, E Avila, P Borque, P DeMott, G McFarquhar, S van den Heever, E Zipser, D Gochis, R Houze, M Jensen, P Kollias, S Kreidenweis, R Leung, K Rasmussen, D Romps, and C Williams. 2019. Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-19-028.

Li X, Z Lu, Q Zhou, and Z Xu. 2019. "A Cloud Detection Algorithm with Reduction of Sunlight Interference in Ground-Based Sky Images." Atmosphere, 10(11), 10.3390/atmos10110640.

Kassianov E, EA Riley, JA Kleiss, L Riihimaki, and LK Berg. 2019. Macrophysical properties of continental shallow cumuli: diurnal evolution. In 24th Remote Sensing of Clous and the Atmopshere, Bellingham, WA: SPIE.

Tao C, Y Zhang, S Tang, Q Tang, H Ma, S Xie, and M Zhang. 2019. "Regional Moisture Budget and Land‐Atmosphere Coupling over the U.S. Southern Great Plains Inferred from the ARM Long‐Term Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(17-18), 10.1029/2019JD030585.
Research Highlight

Lim K, L Riihimaki, Y Shi, D Flynn, J Kleiss, L Berg, W Gustafson, Y Zhang, and K Johnson. 2019. "Long-term retrievals of cloud type and fair-weather shallow cumulus events at the ARM SGP site." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 36(10), 10.1175/JTECH-D-18-0215.1.
Research Highlight

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