sonde: Balloon-Borne Sounding System

The balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) provides in situ measurements (vertical profiles) of both the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere, and the wind speed and direction.

Sonde operations can provide important constraints for model simulations if used during field campaigns where multiple stations are operated around a central location with baseline measurements, such as a mobile facility. When deployed, sondes are launched at scheduled intervals.


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

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Jensen M, E Bruning, D Collins, A Fridlind, P Kollias, C Kuang, D Rosenfeld, A Ryzhkov, and A Varble. 2019. Tracking Aerosol Convective Interactions Experiment (TRACER) Science Plan. Ed. by Robert Stafford, DOE/SC-ARM-19-017.

Mapes B, A Chandra, Z Kuang, S Song, and P Zuidema. 2019. "Estimating Convection’s Moisture Sensitivity: An Observation–Model Synthesis Using AMIE-DYNAMO Field Data." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 76(6), 10.1175/JAS-D-18-0127.1.

de Boer G, M Shupe, A Solomon, and J Intrieri. 2019. Profiling at Oliktok Point to Enhance Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP) Experiments (POPEYE) Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-19-010.

Lin G, B Geerts, Z Wang, C Grasmick, X Jing, and J Yang. 2019. "Interactions Between a Nocturnal MCS and the Stable Boundary Layer, as Observed by an Airborne Compact Raman Lidar During PECAN." Monthly Weather Review, , 10.1175/MWR-D-18-0388.1.

Borg L, A Reale, D Tobin, R Knuteson, M Feltz, L Zhou, D Holdridge, and J Mather. 2019. ARM Radiosondes for Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Validation Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-19-009.

Smith E, J Gebauer, P Klein, E Fedorovich, and J Gibbs. 2019. "The Great Plains Low-Level Jet during PECAN: Observed and Simulated Characteristics." Monthly Weather Review, 147(6), 10.1175/MWR-D-18-0293.1.

Zheng Y. 2019. "Theoretical understanding of the linear relationship between convective updrafts and cloud-base height for shallow cumulus clouds. Part I: Maritime conditions." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, , 10.1175/JAS-D-18-0323.1. ONLINE.

Ghate V and M Cadeddu. 2019. "Drizzle and Turbulence Below Closed Cellular Marine Stratocumulus Clouds." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, , 10.1029/2018JD030141. ONLINE.
Research Highlight

Mlawer E, D Turner, S Paine, L Palchetti, G Bianchini, V Payne, K Cady‐Pereira, R Pernak, M Alvarado, D Gombos, J Delamere, M Mlynczak, and J Mast. 2019. "Analysis of water vapor absorption in the far‐infrared and submillimeter regions using surface radiometric measurements from extremely dry locations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, , 10.1029/2018JD029508.

Rehbein A, T Ambrizzi, C Mechoso, S Ibarra Espinosa, and T Myers. 2019. "Mesoscale convective systems over the Amazon basin: The GoAmazon2014/5 program." International Journal of Climatology, , 10.1002/joc.6173. ONLINE.

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