sonde: Balloon-Borne Sounding System

The balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) provides in situ measurements (vertical profiles) of both the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere, and the wind speed and direction.

Sonde operations can provide important constraints for model simulations if used during field campaigns where multiple stations are operated around a central location with baseline measurements, such as a mobile facility. When deployed, sondes are launched at scheduled intervals.


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Related Publications


Zhang D, A Vogelmann, P Kollias, E Luke, F Yang, D Lubin, and Z Wang. 2019. "Comparison of Antarctic and Arctic Single‐Layer Stratiform Mixed‐Phase Cloud Properties Using Ground‐Based Remote Sensing Measurements." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124, 10.1029/2019JD030673. ONLINE.

Silber I, A Fridlind, J Verlinde, A Ackerman, Y Chen, D Bromwich, S Wang, M Cadeddu, and E Eloranta. 2019. "Persistent Supercooled Drizzle at Temperatures below ‐25°C Observed at McMurdo Station, Antarctica." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, , 10.1029/2019JD030882. ONLINE.
Research Highlight

Tao C, Y Zhang, S Tang, Q Tang, H Ma, S Xie, and M Zhang. 2019. "Regional Moisture Budget and Land‐Atmosphere Coupling over the U.S. Southern Great Plains Inferred from the ARM Long‐Term Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124, 10.1029/2019JD030585. ONLINE.

Fionda E, M Cadeddu, V Mattioli, and R Pacione. 2019. "Intercomparison of Integrated Water Vapor Measurements at High Latitudes from Co-Located and Near-Located Instruments." Remote Sensing, 11(18), 10.3390/rs11182130.

Wu M and J Lee. 2019. "Thresholds for Atmospheric Convection in Amazonian Rainforests." Geophysical Research Letters, 46(16), 10.1029/2019GL082909.

Tang S, C Tao, S Xie, and M Zhang. 2019. Description of the ARM Large-Scale Forcing Data from the Constrained Variational Analysis (VARANAL) Version 2. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-222.

Chand D, R Newsom, T Thorsen, E Cromwell, C Sivaraman, C Flynn, J Shilling, and J Comstock. 2019. Aerosol and Cloud Optical Properties from the ARM Raman Lidars: The Feature Detection and Extinction (FEX) Value-Added Product. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-224.

Kalesse H, T Vogl, C Paduraru, and E Luke. 2019. "Development and validation of a supervised machine learning radar Doppler spectra peak-finding algorithm." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 12(8), 10.5194/amt-12-4591-2019.

Fast J, L Berg, Z Feng, F Mei, R Newsom, K Sakaguchi, and H Xiao. 2019. "The Impact of Variable Land‐Atmosphere Coupling on Convective Cloud Populations Observed During the 2016 HI‐SCALE Field Campaign." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 11(8), 10.1029/2019MS001727.

Sedlar J and M Tjernström. 2019. "A Process-Based Climatological Evaluation of AIRS Level 3 Tropospheric Thermodynamics over the High-Latitude Arctic." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 58(8), 10.1175/JAMC-D-18-0306.1.

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