sonde: Balloon-Borne Sounding System

The balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) provides in situ measurements (vertical profiles) of both the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere, and the wind speed and direction.

Sonde operations can provide important constraints for model simulations if used during field campaigns where multiple stations are operated around a central location with baseline measurements, such as a mobile facility. When deployed, sondes are launched at scheduled intervals.


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Active Instrument Locations

Facility Name Instrument Start Date
Central Facility, Lamont, OK 1993-07-01
Graciosa Island, Azores, Portugal 2013-09-28
Central Facility, Barrow AK 2002-04-28


Zhang J, Y Zheng, Z Li, X Xia, and H Chen. 2020. "A 17-year climatology of temperature inversions above clouds over the ARM SGP site: The roles of cloud radiative effects." Atmospheric Research, 237, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2019.104810.

Naud C, J Booth, K Lamer, R Marchand, A Protat, and G McFarquhar. 2020. "On The Relationship Between The Marine Cold Air Outbreak M Parameter And Low‐Level Cloud Heights In The Midlatitudes." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, , 10.1029/2020JD032465. ONLINE.

Zhang D, L Riihimaki, KL Gaustad, and DD Turner. 2020. MWRRETV2 Value-Added Product Report: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer – 3-Channel (MWR3C) Data Sets. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-245.

Wang D, S Giangrande, Z Feng, J Hardin, and A Prein. 2020. "Updraft and Downdraft Core Size and Intensity as Revealed by Radar Wind Profilers: MCS Observations and Idealized Model Comparisons." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, , 10.1029/2019JD031774. ONLINE.

Zheng X, S Klein, V Ghate, S Santos, J McGibbon, P Caldwell, P Bogenschutz, W Lin, and M Cadeddu. 2020. "Assessment of Precipitating Marine Stratocumulus Clouds in the E3SMv1 Atmosphere Model: A Case Study from the ARM MAGIC Field Campaign." Monthly Weather Review, , 10.1175/MWR-D-19-0349.1. ONLINE.

Feng X, F Xie, C Ao, and R Anthes. 2020. "Ducting and Biases of GPS Radio Occultation Bending Angle and Refractivity in the Moist Lower Troposphere." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 37(6), 10.1175/JTECH-D-19-0206.1.

Ahmed F, AF Adames, and J Neelin. 2020. "Deep convective adjustment of temperature and moisture." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 77(6), 10.1175/JAS-D-19-0227.1.

Abel S, P Barrett, P Zuidema, J Zhang, M Christensen, F Peers, J Taylor, I Crawford, K Bower, and M Flynn. 2020. "Open cells exhibit weaker entrainment of free-tropospheric biomass burning aerosol into the south-east Atlantic boundary layer." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(7), 10.5194/acp-20-4059-2020.

Roy R, M Lebsock, L Millán, and K Cooper. 2020. "Validation of a G-band differential absorption cloud radar for humidity remote sensing." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, , 10.1175/JTECH-D-19-0122.1. ONLINE.

Marchand R. 2020. Macquarie Island Cloud and Radiation Experiment (MICRE) Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-20-005.

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