Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

sonde > Balloon-Borne Sounding SystemVAP Type(s) > Baseline • Evaluation • External • Guest

The balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) provides in situ measurements (vertical profiles) of both the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere, and the wind speed and direction.

Sonde operations can provide important constraints for model simulations if used during field campaigns where multiple stations are operated around a central location with baseline measurements, such as a mobile facility. When deployed, sondes are launched at scheduled intervals.


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3


Zhang Z, A Varble, Z Feng, J Hardin, and E Zipser. 2021. "Growth of Mesoscale Convective Systems in Observations and a Seasonal Convection-Permitting Simulation over Argentina." Monthly Weather Review, 149(10), 10.1175/MWR-D-20-0411.1.
Research Highlight

Dorsey K and D Feldman. 2021. Surface Atmosphere Integrated Field Laboratory. Ed. by Rolanda Jundt, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-20-016.

Jensen M, V Ghate, D Wang, D Apoznanski, M Bartholomew, S Giangrande, K Johnson, and M Thieman. 2021. "Contrasting characteristics of open- and closed-cellular stratocumulus cloud in the eastern North Atlantic." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(19), 10.5194/acp-21-14557-2021.
Research Highlight

Ghate V, M Cadeddu, X Zheng, and E O'Connor. 2021. "Turbulence in The Marine Boundary Layer and Air Motions Below Stratocumulus Clouds at the ARM Eastern North Atlantic Site." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, , 10.1175/JAMC-D-21-0087.1. ONLINE.
Research Highlight

HENKES A, G Fisch, L Machado, and J Chaboureau. 2021. "Morning boundary layer conditions for shallow to deep convective cloud evolution during the dry season in the central Amazon." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(17), 10.5194/acp-21-13207-2021.

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