sonde > Balloon-Borne Sounding SystemVAP Type(s) > Baseline • Evaluation • External • Guest

The balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) provides in situ measurements (vertical profiles) of both the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere, and the wind speed and direction.

Sonde operations can provide important constraints for model simulations if used during field campaigns where multiple stations are operated around a central location with baseline measurements, such as a mobile facility. When deployed, sondes are launched at scheduled intervals.


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3


Biscaro T, L Machado, S Giangrande, and M Jensen. 2021. "What drives daily precipitation over the central Amazon? Differences observed between wet and dry seasons." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(9), 10.5194/acp-21-6735-2021.

Schumacher R, D Hence, S Nesbitt, R Trapp, K Kosiba, J Wurman, P Salio, M Rugna, A Varble, and N Kelly. 2021. "Convective-Storm Environments in Subtropical South America from High-Frequency Soundings during RELAMPAGO-CACTI." Monthly Weather Review, 149(5), 10.1175/MWR-D-20-0293.1.

Ciesielski P and R Johnson. 2021. "Small Island Effects in DYNAMO and Their Impact on Large-Scale Budget Analyses." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 60(4), 10.1175/JAMC-D-20-0238.1.

Feldman D, A Aiken, W Boos, R Carroll, V Chandrasekar, W Collins, S Collis, J Deems, P DeMott, J Fan, A Flores, D Gochis, J Harrington, M Kumjian, LR Leung, T O'Brien, M Raleigh, A Rhoades, SM Skiles, J Smith, R Sullivan, P Ullrich, A Varble, and K Williams. 2021. Surface Atmosphere Integrated Field Laboratory (SAIL) Science Plan. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-21-004.

Varble A, S Nesbitt, P Salio, J Hardin, N Bharadwaj, P Borque, P DeMott, Z Feng, T Hill, J Marquis, A Matthews, F Mei, R Öktem, V Castro, L Goldberger, A Hunzinger, K Barry, S Kreidenweis, G McFarquhar, L McMurdie, M Pekour, H Powers, D Romps, C Saulo, B Schmid, J Tomlinson, S van den Heever, A Zelenyuk, Z Zhang, and E Zipser. 2021. "Utilizing a Storm-Generating Hotspot to Study Convective Cloud Transitions: The CACTI Experiment." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, , 10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0030.1. ONLINE.

Desai N, Y Liu, S Glienke, R Shaw, C Lu, J Wang, and S Gao. 2021. "Vertical variation of turbulent entrainment mixing processes in marine stratocumulus clouds using high resolution digital holography." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(7), e2020JD033527, 10.1029/2020JD033527.

Luke E, F Yang, P Kollias, A Vogelmann, and M Maahn. 2021. "New insights into ice multiplication using remote-sensing observations of slightly supercooled mixed-phase clouds in the Arctic." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(13), 10.1073/pnas.2021387118.

Silber I, A Fridlind, J Verlinde, A Ackerman, G Cesana, and D Knopf. 2021. "The prevalence of precipitation from polar supercooled clouds." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(5), 10.5194/acp-21-3949-2021.
Research Highlight

Vignon E, S Alexander, P DeMott, G Sotiropoulou, F Gerber, T Hill, R Marchand, A Nenes, and A Berne. 2021. "Challenging and improving the simulation of mid‐level mixed‐phase clouds over the high‐latitude Southern Ocean." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(7), e2020JD033490, 10.1029/2020JD033490.

McErlich C, A McDonald, A Schuddeboom, and I Silber. 2021. "Comparing satellite- and ground–based observations of cloud occurrence over high southern latitudes." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(6), e2020JD033607, 10.1029/2020JD033607.

View All Related Publications