sonde: Balloon-Borne Sounding System

The balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) provides in situ measurements (vertical profiles) of both the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere, and the wind speed and direction.

Sonde operations can provide important constraints for model simulations if used during field campaigns where multiple stations are operated around a central location with baseline measurements, such as a mobile facility. When deployed, sondes are launched at scheduled intervals.


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Active Instrument Locations

Facility Name Instrument Start Date
Graciosa Island, Azores, Portugal 2013-09-28
Central Facility, Lamont, OK 1993-07-01
Central Facility, Barrow AK 2002-04-28
Oliktok Point, Alaska; AMF3 2015-08-01


Zhang J, Y Zheng, Z Li, X Xia, and H Chen. 2020. "A 17-year climatology of temperature inversions above clouds over the ARM SGP site: The roles of cloud radiative effects." Atmospheric Research, 237, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2019.104810.

Su T, Z Li, and R Kahn. 2020. "A new method to retrieve the diurnal variability of planetary boundary layer height from lidar under different thermodynamic stability conditions." Remote Sensing of Environment, 237, 111519, 10.1016/j.rse.2019.111519.

Stephan C, T Lane, and C Jakob. 2020. "Gravity Wave Influences on Mesoscale Divergence: An Observational Case Study." Geophysical Research Letters, 47(1), 10.1029/2019GL086539.

Hansen Z, L Back, and P Zhou. 2020. "Boundary Layer Quasi-Equilibrium Limits Convective Intensity Enhancement from the Diurnal Cycle in Surface Heating." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 77(1), 10.1175/JAS-D-18-0346.1.

Weckworth TM, S Spuler, and DD Turner. 2020. Micropulse Differential Absorption Lidar (MPD) Network Demonstration Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-20-002.

Quan J, Y Dou, X Zhao, Q Liu, Z Sun, Y Pan, X Jia, Z Cheng, P Ma, J Su, J Xin, and Y Liu. 2020. "Regional atmospheric pollutant transport mechanisms over the North China Plain driven by topography and planetary boundary layer processes." Atmospheric Environment, 221, 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.117098.

Gustafson W, A Vogelmann, Z Li, X Cheng, K Dumas, S Endo, K Johnson, B Krishna, T Toto, and H Xiao. 2020. "The Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Activity for Continental Shallow Convection." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, , 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0065.1. ONLINE.


Chipilski H, X Wang, and D Parsons. 2019. "Impact of Assimilating PECAN Profilers on the Prediction of Bore-Driven Nocturnal Convection: A Multi-Scale Forecast Evaluation for the 6 July 2015 Case Study." Monthly Weather Review, , 10.1175/MWR-D-19-0171.1. ONLINE.

Stillwell R, S Spuler, M Hayman, K Repasky, and C Bunn. 2019. "Demonstration of a combined differential absorption and high spectral resolution lidar for profiling atmospheric temperature." Optics Express, 28(1), 10.1364/OE.379804.

Zhang C, Y Wang, and M Xue. 2019. " Evaluation of an -ε and three other Boundary Layer Parameterization Schemes in the WRF Model over the Southeast Pacific and the Southern Great Plains ." Monthly Weather Review, , 10.1175/MWR-D-19-0084.1. ONLINE.

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