sonde: Balloon-Borne Sounding System

The balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) provides in situ measurements (vertical profiles) of both the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere, and the wind speed and direction.

Sonde operations can provide important constraints for model simulations if used during field campaigns where multiple stations are operated around a central location with baseline measurements, such as a mobile facility. When deployed, sondes are launched at scheduled intervals.


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Active Instrument Locations

Facility Name Instrument Start Date
Graciosa Island, Azores, Portugal 2013-09-28
Central Facility, Lamont, OK 1993-07-01
Central Facility, Barrow AK 2002-04-28
Oliktok Point, Alaska; AMF3 2015-08-01


Zhang J. 2020. "Cloud-top temperature inversion derived from long-term radiosonde measurements at the ARM TWP and NSA sites." Atmospheric Research, 246, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.105113.

Wang D, M Jensen, J D'Iorio, G Jozef, S Giangrande, K Johnson, Z Luo, M Starzec, and G Mullendore. 2020. "An Observational Comparison of Level of Neutral Buoyancy and Level of Maximum Detrainment in Tropical Deep Convective Clouds." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, , 10.1029/2020JD032637. ONLINE.

Mei F, D Dexheimer, J Fast, M Diao, B Geerts, A Bucholtz, L Riihimaki, C Flynn, T Thornberry, T Campos, S Springston, C Kuang, J Tomlinson, and B Schmid. 2020. ARM Aerial Instrument Workshop Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-20-010.

Giangrande S, D Wang, and D Mechem. 2020. "Cloud regimes over the Amazon Basin: perspectives from the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(12), 10.5194/acp-20-7489-2020.

Zheng Y, D Rosenfeld, and Z Li. 2020. "A more general paradigm for understanding the decoupling of stratocumulus‐topped boundary layers: the importance of horizontal temperature advection." Geophysical Research Letters, 47(14), e2020GL087697, 10.1029/2020GL087697.

Battaglia A, P Kollias, R Dhillon, R Roy, S Tanelli, K Lamer, M Grecu, M Lebsock, D Watters, K MROZ, G Heymsfield, L Li, and K Furukawa. 2020. "Space‐borne cloud and precipitation radars: status, challenges and ways forward." Reviews of Geophysics, 58(3), e2019RG000686, 10.1029/2019RG000686.

Zhang J, Y Zheng, Z Li, X Xia, and H Chen. 2020. "A 17-year climatology of temperature inversions above clouds over the ARM SGP site: The roles of cloud radiative effects." Atmospheric Research, 237, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2019.104810.

Maahn M, D Turner, U Löhnert, D Posselt, K Ebell, G Mace, and J Comstock. 2020. "Optimal Estimation Retrievals and Their Uncertainties: What Every Atmospheric Scientist Should Know." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, preprint(2020), 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0027.1. ONLINE.

Yang Z, Y Qian, Y Liu, L Berg, W Gustafson, Z Feng, K Sakaguchi, J Fast, S Tai, B Yang, M Huang, and H Xiao. 2020. "Understanding irrigation impacts on low-level jets over the Great Plains." Climate Dynamics, 55(3-4), 10.1007/s00382-020-05301-7.

Zhang D, L Riihimaki, KL Gaustad, and DD Turner. 2020. MWRRETV2 Value-Added Product Report: The Retrieval of Liquid Water Path and Precipitable Water Vapor from Microwave Radiometer – 3-Channel (MWR3C) Data Sets. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-245.

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