sonde > Balloon-Borne Sounding SystemVAP Type(s) > Baseline • Evaluation • External • Guest

The balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) provides in situ measurements (vertical profiles) of both the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere, and the wind speed and direction.

Sonde operations can provide important constraints for model simulations if used during field campaigns where multiple stations are operated around a central location with baseline measurements, such as a mobile facility. When deployed, sondes are launched at scheduled intervals.


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3


Zhang J. 2020. "Cloud-top temperature inversion derived from long-term radiosonde measurements at the ARM TWP and NSA sites." Atmospheric Research, 246, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.105113.

Balmes K and Q FU. 2020. "The diurnally-averaged aerosol direct radiative effect and the use of the daytime-mean and insolation-weighted-mean solar zenith angles." Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 257, 107363, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2020.107363.

Holdridge D. 2020. Balloon-Borne Sounding System (SONDE) Instrument Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-029.

Borque P, L Vidal, M Rugna, TJ Lang, M Nicora, and S Nesbitt. 2020. "Distinctive Signals in 1ÔÇÉminute Observations of Overshooting Tops and Lightning Activity in a Severe Supercell Thunderstorm." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125(20), e3030JD032856, 10.1029/2020JD032856.

Dorsey K and D Feldman. 2020. Surface Atmosphere Integrated Field Laboratory. Ed. by Rolanda Jundt, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-20-016.

Serra Y, A Rowe, D Adams, and G Kiladis. 2020. "Kelvin Waves during GOAmazon and Their Relationship to Deep Convection." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 77(10), 10.1175/JAS-D-20-0008.1.
Research Highlight

Zhang Y, K Sun, Z Gao, Z Pan, M Shook, and D Li. 2020. "Diurnal climatology of planetary boundary layer height over the contiguous United States derived from AMDAR and reanalysis data." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125(20), e2020JD032803, 10.1029/2020JD032803.

Ghate V, M Cadeddu, and R Wood. 2020. "Drizzle, Turbulence, and Density Currents Below Post Cold Frontal Open Cellular Marine Stratocumulus Clouds." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125(19), 10.1029/2019JD031586.
Research Highlight

Gordon H, P Field, S Abel, P Barrett, K Bower, I Crawford, Z Cui, D Grosvenor, A Hill, J Taylor, J Wilkinson, H Wu, and K Carslaw. 2020. "Development of aerosol activation in the double-moment Unified Model and evaluation with CLARIFY measurements." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(18), 10.5194/acp-20-10997-2020.

Hitchcock S and R Schumacher. 2020. "Analysis of Back-Building Convection in Simulations with a Strong Low-Level Stable Layer." Monthly Weather Review, 148(9), 10.1175/MWR-D-19-0246.1.

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