co-analyzer: Carbon Monoxide Analyzer

As of 5 August, 2015, Los Gatos Research (LGR) CO/H2O/N2O analyzer instruments (COANALYZERs) were deployed in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF), the third ARM Mobile Facility (AMF3) Aerosol Observing System (AOS), Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) AOS and Mobile AOS (MAOS-C).

The N2O/CO analyzer uses LGR’s patented Off-axis ICOS technology, which employs a high-finesse optical cavity as the measurement cell. LGR’s technology has many proven advantages over conventional first-generation cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS) techniques. In brief, since the laser beam does not have to be resonantly coupled to the measurement cell, precise beam alignment is not critical. Mentors can disassemble the cell for cleaning (CAREFULLY) the front surface mirrors. Analyzers are relatively inexpensive and inherently robust thermally and mechanically. In addition, since LGR’s technology can record reliable absorption spectra over a far wider range of optical depths (absorbance values) than CRDS, LGR analyzers provide measurements over a much wider range of mixing ratios (gas concentrations). The N2O/CO analyzer includes an internal computer that sends real-time data to the local instrument computer through its digital (RS-232) output.



  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Active Instrument Locations

Facility Name Instrument Start Date
Oliktok Point, Alaska; AMF3 2016-08-05
Graciosa Island, Azores, Portugal 2015-04-24

Related Publications


Jensen M, E Bruning, D Collins, A Fridlind, P Kollias, C Kuang, D Rosenfeld, A Ryzhkov, A Varble, SD Brooks, S Collis, E Defer, J Fan, J Flynn, S Giangrande, R Griffin, J Hu, R Jackson, M Kumjian, T Logan, T Matsui, G McFarquhar, C Nowotarski, J Quaas, M Oue, R Sheesley, J Snyder, P Stier, S Usenko, S van den Heever, M van Lier Walqui, Y Wang, Y Xu, and G Zhang. 2019. Tracking Aerosol Convection Interactions ExpeRiment (TRACER) Science Plan. Ed. by Robert Stafford, DOE/SC-ARM-19-017.


Pennypacker S and R Wood. 2017. "A Case Study in Low Aerosol Number Concentrations Over the Eastern North Atlantic: Implications for Pristine Conditions in the Remote Marine Boundary Layer." Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 122(22), doi:10.1002/2017JD027493.
Research Highlight


Springston S. 2015. Carbon Monoxide Analyzer (CO-ANALYZER) Instrument Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-159.


Biraud SC. 2011. Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System Handbook. U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-072.


Yurganov L, WW McMillan, C Wilson, ML Fischer, SC Biraud, and C Sweeny. 2010. "Carbon monoxide mixing ratios over Oklahoma between 2002 and 2009 retrieved from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer spectra." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 3(5), 10.5194/amt-3-1319-2010.

McMillan WW, RB Pierce, LC Sparling, G Osterman, K McCann, ML Fischer, B Rappengluck, R Newsom, D Turner, C Kittaka, K Evans, SC Biraud, B Lefer, A Andrews, and S Oltmans. 2010. "An observational and modeling strategy to investigate the impact of remote sources on local air quality: A Houston, Texas, case study from the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS II)." Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 115(D1), D01301, 10.1029/2009jd011973.


Voyles JW. 2009. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2009. DOE ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM/P-09-004.1.

Voyles JW. 2009. ACRF Instrumentation Status and Information. DOe ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM/P-09-004.8.


Voyles JW. 2008. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future. DOe ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM/P-08-004.7.

Voyles JW. 2008. ACRF Ingest Software Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008. DOe ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM/P-08-004.6.

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