wacr: W-Band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar

The W-band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) systems are zenith-pointing Doppler radars that probe the extent and composition of clouds at 95.04 GHz.

The main purpose of this radar is to determine cloud boundaries (e.g., cloud bottoms and tops).

This radar reports estimates for the first three spectra moments for each range gate up to 15 km. The 0th moment is reflectivity, the 1st moment is radial velocity, and the 2nd moment is spectral width. Also available are the raw spectra files.

Unlike the millimeter wavelength cloud radar (MMCR), the WACR does not use pulse coding and operates in only copolarization and cross-polarization modes.



  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3


Wang D, M Jensen, J D'Iorio, G Jozef, S Giangrande, K Johnson, Z Luo, M Starzec, and G Mullendore. 2020. "An Observational Comparison of Level of Neutral Buoyancy and Level of Maximum Detrainment in Tropical Deep Convective Clouds." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, , 10.1029/2020JD032637. ONLINE.

Zheng Y, D Rosenfeld, and Z Li. 2020. "A more general paradigm for understanding the decoupling of stratocumulus‐topped boundary layers: the importance of horizontal temperature advection." Geophysical Research Letters, 47(14), e2020GL087697, 10.1029/2020GL087697.

Naud C, J Booth, K Lamer, R Marchand, A Protat, and G McFarquhar. 2020. "On The Relationship Between The Marine Cold Air Outbreak M Parameter And Low‐Level Cloud Heights In The Midlatitudes." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125(13), e2020JD032465, 10.1029/2020JD032465.


Kollias P, N Bharadwaj, E Clothiaux, K Lamer, M Oue, J Hardin, B Isom, I Lindenmaier, A Matthews, E Luke, S Giangrande, K Johnson, S Collis, J Comstock, and J Mather. 2019. "The ARM Radar Network: At the Leading-edge of Cloud and Precipitation Observations." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 101(5), 10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0288.1.

Kollias P, B Puigdomènech Treserras, and A Protat. 2019. "Calibration of the 2007–2017 record of Atmospheric Radiation Measurements cloud radar observations using CloudSat." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 12(9), 10.5194/amt-12-4949-2019.

Liu J and Z Li. 2019. "Aerosol properties and their influences on low warm clouds during the Two-Column Aerosol Project." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19(14), 10.5194/acp-19-9515-2019.

Lee H, A Fridlind, and A Ackerman. 2019. "An evaluation of size-resolved cloud microphysics scheme numerics for use with radar observations Part I: Collision-coalescence." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 76(1), 10.1175/JAS-D-18-0174.1.
Research Highlight

Schiro K and J Neelin. 2019. "Deep Convective Organization, Moisture Vertical Structure and Convective Transition using Deep-Inflow Mixing." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 76(4), 10.1175/JAS-D-18-0122.1.


Wu P, B Xi, X Dong, and Z Zhang. 2018. "Evaluation of autoconversion and accretion enhancement factors in general circulation model warm-rain parameterizations using ground-based measurements over the Azores." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(23), 10.5194/acp-18-17405-2018.

Zheng Y, D Rosenfeld, and Z Li. 2018. "Estimating the decoupling degree of subtropical marine stratocumulus decks from satellite." Geophysical Research Letters, 45(22), 10.1029/2018GL078382.
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