dl > Doppler LidarInstrument Type(s) > Baseline • Guest

The Doppler lidar (DL) is an active remote-sensing instrument that provides range- and time-resolved measurements of the line-of-sight component of air velocity (i.e., radial velocity) and attenuated aerosol backscatter. The DL operates in the near-infrared and is sensitive to backscatter from atmospheric aerosol, which are assumed to be ideal tracers of atmospheric wind fields.

The DL works by transmitting short pulses of infrared laser light into the atmosphere. Atmospheric aerosols scatter a small fraction of that light energy back to the transceiver, where it is collected and recorded as a time-resolved signal. From the delay between the outgoing pulse and the backscattered signal, the instrument infers the distance to the scattering volume.

Coherent detection is used to measure the Doppler frequency shift of the backscatter signal. This is accomplished by mixing the backscatter signal with a reference laser beam (i.e., local oscillator) of known frequency. The onboard signal processor then determines the Doppler frequency shift from the spectrum of the mixed signal. The Doppler frequency shift and thus the radial air velocity is determined from the peak of the Doppler spectrum. The attenuated backscatter is determined from the energy content of the Doppler spectra.

The DL provides accurate measurements of radial velocity in regions of the atmosphere where aerosol concentrations are high enough to ensure good signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, valid data are usually limited to the atmospheric boundary layer where aerosol is ubiquitous. Valid measurements can also be obtained in elevated aerosol layers or in optically thin clouds above the boundary layer. Most of the ARM DLs have full upper-hemispheric scanning capability, enabling 3D mapping of turbulent flows in the atmospheric boundary layer. With the scanner pointed vertically, the DL provides height- and time-resolved measurements of vertical velocity.

Measurements

Locations

  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

2021

Shupe M, D Chu, D Costa, C Cox, J Creamean, G de Boer, K Dethloff, R Engelmann, M Gallagher, E Hunke, W Maslowski, A McComiskey, J Osborn, O Persson, H Powers, K Pratt, D Randall, A Solomon, M Tjernstrom, D Turner, J Uin, T Uttal, J Verlinde, and D Wagner. 2021. Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-21-007.

Kirshbaum D and K Lamer. 2021. "Climatological sensitivities of shallow-cumulus bulk entrainment in continental and oceanic locations." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, , 10.1175/JAS-D-20-0377.1. ONLINE.

Fridlind A, C Chiu, S Collis, J Comstock, S Giangrande, N Hickmon, M Jensen, M Kumjian, P Muradyan, R Newsom, A Sockol, M Sturm, and A Theisen. 2021. ARM Cloud and Precipitation Measurements and Science Group (CPMSG) Workshop Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-21-005.

Feldman D, A Aiken, W Boos, R Carroll, V Chandrasekar, W Collins, S Collis, J Deems, P DeMott, J Fan, A Flores, D Gochis, J Harrington, M Kumjian, LR Leung, T O'Brien, M Raleigh, A Rhoades, SM Skiles, J Smith, R Sullivan, P Ullrich, A Varble, and K Williams. 2021. Surface Atmosphere Integrated Field Laboratory (SAIL) Science Plan. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-21-004.

Varble A, S Nesbitt, P Salio, J Hardin, N Bharadwaj, P Borque, P DeMott, Z Feng, T Hill, J Marquis, A Matthews, F Mei, R Öktem, V Castro, L Goldberger, A Hunzinger, K Barry, S Kreidenweis, G McFarquhar, L McMurdie, M Pekour, H Powers, D Romps, C Saulo, B Schmid, J Tomlinson, S van den Heever, A Zelenyuk, Z Zhang, and E Zipser. 2021. "Utilizing a Storm-Generating Hotspot to Study Convective Cloud Transitions: The CACTI Experiment." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, , 10.1175/BAMS-D-20-0030.1. ONLINE.

Zheng Y, D Rosenfeld, and Z Li. 2021. "Sub‐cloud turbulence explains cloud‐base updrafts for shallow cumulus ensembles: First observational evidence." Geophysical Research Letters, 48(6), e2020GL091881, 10.1029/2020GL091881.
Research Highlight

Vignon E, S Alexander, P DeMott, G Sotiropoulou, F Gerber, T Hill, R Marchand, A Nenes, and A Berne. 2021. "Challenging and improving the simulation of mid‐level mixed‐phase clouds over the high‐latitude Southern Ocean." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(7), e2020JD033490, 10.1029/2020JD033490.

Geoga C, M Anitescu, and M Stein. 2021. "Flexible nonstationary spatiotemporal modeling of high‐frequency monitoring data." Environmetrics, , e2670, 10.1002/env.2670. ONLINE.

Dorsey KS, R Jundt, CB Ireland, MR Wasem, RA Stafford, and A Hunzinger. 2021. 2020 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Annual Report. Ed. by Kathryn Dorsey, U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/SC-ARM-20-020.

Krishnamurthy R, R Newsom, D Chand, and WJ Shaw. 2021. Boundary Layer Climatology at ARM Southern Great Plains. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. PNNL-30832.


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