dl: Doppler Lidar

The Doppler lidar (DL) is an active remote-sensing instrument that provides range- and time-resolved measurements of the line-of-sight component of air velocity (i.e., radial velocity) and attenuated aerosol backscatter. The DL operates in the near-infrared and is sensitive to backscatter from atmospheric aerosol, which are assumed to be ideal tracers of atmospheric wind fields.

The DL works by transmitting short pulses of infrared laser light into the atmosphere. Atmospheric aerosols scatter a small fraction of that light energy back to the transceiver, where it is collected and recorded as a time-resolved signal. From the delay between the outgoing pulse and the backscattered signal, the instrument infers the distance to the scattering volume.

Coherent detection is used to measure the Doppler frequency shift of the backscatter signal. This is accomplished by mixing the backscatter signal with a reference laser beam (i.e., local oscillator) of known frequency. The onboard signal processor then determines the Doppler frequency shift from the spectrum of the mixed signal. The Doppler frequency shift and thus the radial air velocity is determined from the peak of the Doppler spectrum. The attenuated backscatter is determined from the energy content of the Doppler spectra.

The DL provides accurate measurements of radial velocity in regions of the atmosphere where aerosol concentrations are high enough to ensure good signal-to-noise ratio. Thus, valid data are usually limited to the atmospheric boundary layer where aerosol is ubiquitous. Valid measurements can also be obtained in elevated aerosol layers or in optically thin clouds above the boundary layer. Most of the ARM DLs have full upper-hemispheric scanning capability, enabling 3D mapping of turbulent flows in the atmospheric boundary layer. With the scanner pointed vertically, the DL provides height- and time-resolved measurements of vertical velocity.

Measurements

Locations

  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

2019

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Wang C, Y Qian, Q Duan, M Huang, L Berg, H Shin, Z Feng, B Yang, J Quan, S Hong, and J Yan. 2019. "Assessing the sensitivity of land-atmosphere coupling strength to boundary and surface layer parameters in the WRF model over Amazon." Atmospheric Research, 234, 104738, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2019.104738.

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Bonin T, P Klein, and P Chilson. 2019. "Contrasting Characteristics and Evolution of Southerly Low-Level Jets during Different Boundary-Layer Regimes." Boundary-Layer Meteorology, , 10.1007/s10546-019-00481-0.

Endo S, D Zhang, A Vogelmann, P Kollias, K Lamer, M Oue, H Xiao, W Gustafson, and D Romps. 2019. "Reconciling Differences Between Large‐Eddy Simulations and Doppler Lidar Observations of Continental Shallow Cumulus Cloud‐Base Vertical Velocity." Geophysical Research Letters, 46(20), 10.1029/2019GL084893.

Mason S, R Hogan, C Westbrook, S Kneifel, D Moisseev, and L von Terzi. 2019. "The importance of particle size distribution and internal structure for triple-frequency radar retrievals of the morphology of snow." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 12(9), 10.5194/amt-12-4993-2019.

Tao C, Y Zhang, S Tang, Q Tang, H Ma, S Xie, and M Zhang. 2019. "Regional Moisture Budget and Land‐Atmosphere Coupling over the U.S. Southern Great Plains Inferred from the ARM Long‐Term Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(17-18), 10.1029/2019JD030585.

Hu J, N Yussouf, D Turner, T Jones, and X Wang. 2019. "Impact of Ground-based Remote Sensing Boundary Layer Observations on Short-term Probabilistic Forecasts of a Tornadic Supercell Event." Weather and Forecasting, 34(5), 10.1175/WAF-D-18-0200.1.

Fast J, L Berg, Z Feng, F Mei, R Newsom, K Sakaguchi, and H Xiao. 2019. "The Impact of Variable Land‐Atmosphere Coupling on Convective Cloud Populations Observed During the 2016 HI‐SCALE Field Campaign." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 11(8), 10.1029/2019MS001727.

Degelia S, X Wang, and D Stensrud. 2019. "An Evaluation of the Impact of Assimilating AERI Retrievals, Kinematic Profilers, Rawinsondes, and Surface Observations on a Forecast of a Nocturnal Convection Initiation Event during the PECAN Field Campaign." Monthly Weather Review, 147(8), 10.1175/MWR-D-18-0423.1.


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