Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate

1 February 2014 - 13 September 2014

Lead Scientist: Tuukka Petaja

Observatory: AMF, TMP

The Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) experiment provided a bridge from a 19-year in situ observation record to the impact of biogenic aerosol on clouds, precipitation, and climate. This was achieved by simultaneous observations of precursor vapor emission, aerosol, cloud and precipitation microstructure. This data set was used to: 1) link precursor emissions and aerosol, 2) link aerosol at the surface to aerosol in the mixed layer, and 3) investigate the aerosol indirect effect on clouds and precipitation. To achieve those goals, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed in Hyytiälä, Finland, for a period of 7.5 months, starting in January 2014, to capture the seasonal variability of biogenic aerosol at this boreal environment site. The experiment took place at the University of Helsinki SMEAR II research station, which has been monitoring biosphere-atmosphere interactions continuously since 1996.

The AMF observations were supplemented by tower- and surface-based measurements of aerosol and precursor gases. During intensive observational periods, aircraft observations of aerosol microphysics were performed. The experiment also benefited from existing measurements of precipitation provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute observational network. The 7.5-month data set was placed in perspective with the long time series available from Hyytiälä. It was utilized in modeling efforts ranging from process models to global climate models, capitalizing on the ability to perform radiative transfer calculations with full closure.

The BAECC campaign took place in a boreal forest environment in Finland.
The BAECC campaign took place in a boreal forest environment in Finland.


Jaana Bäck Hannele Korhonen Anders Lindfors
Michael Boy Markku Kulmala Dmitri Moisseev
V. Chandrasekar Ari Laaksonen Ewan OConnor
Gerrit Deleeuw Hanna Lappalainen Sami Romakkaniemi
Veli-Matti Kerminen Kari Lehtinen Douglas Worsnop
Harri Kokkola Janne Levula
Mika Komppula Heikki Lihavainen

Related Publications


Arulraj M and A Barros. 2017. "Shallow Precipitation Detection and Classification Using Multifrequency Radar Observations and Model Simulations." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 34(9), 10.1175/JTECH-D-17-0060.1.

Moisseev D, A von Lerber, and J Tiira. 2017. "Quantifying the effect of riming on snowfall using ground-based observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(7), 10.1002/2016JD026272.

Le M, V Chandrasekar, and S Biswas. 2017. "An Algorithm to Identify Surface Snowfall From GPM DPR Observations." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 55(7), 10.1109/TGRS.2017.2687420.


Petäjä T, EJ O'Connor, D Moisseev, VA Sinclair, AJ Manninen, R Väänänen, A von Lerber, JA Thornton, W Petersen, V Chandrasekar, JN Smith, PM Winkler, O Krüger, H Hakola, H Timonen, D Brus, T Laurila, E Asmi, M Riekkola, L Mona, P Massoli, R Engelmann, M Komppula, J Wang, C Kuang, J Bäck, V Annele, J Levula, M Ritsche, and N Hickmon. 2016. "BAECC: A Field Campaign to Elucidate the Impact of Biogenic Aerosols on Clouds and Climate." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 97(10), 10.1175/bams-d-14-00199.1.

Tiira J, D Moisseev, A von Lerber, D Ori, A Tokay, L Bliven, and W Petersen. 2016. "Ensemble mean density and its connection to other microphysical properties of falling snow as observed in Southern Finland." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 9(9), 10.5194/amt-9-4825-2016.

Sporre MK, EJ O'Connor, N Hakansson, A Thoss, E Swietlicki, and T Petaja. 2016. "Comparison of MODIS and VIIRS cloud properties with ARM ground-based observations over Finland." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 9(7), 10.5194/amt-9-3193-2016.

Petaja T, R Vaananen, D Moisseev, L Heikkinen, V Sinclair, M Aijala, E O'Connor, J Aalto, A Manninen, AJ Thornton, and J Levula. 2016. Biogenic Aerosols—Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) Final Campaign Summary. DOE ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-15-051.


Lopez-Hilfiker FD, C Mohr, M Ehn, F Rubach, E Kleist, J Wildt, TF Mentel, A Lutz, M Hallquist, D Worsnop, and JA Thornton. 2013. "A novel method for online analysis of gas and particle composition: description and evaluation of a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO)." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 7, 10.5194/amt-7-983-2014.

Roeder L. 2013. Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC) Backgrounder. Ed. by Dana DuPont, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-13-019.

View All Related Publications

Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Dmitri Moisseev Anemometer Order Data
Dmitri Moisseev C-band Radar Order Data
Dmitri Moisseev Disdrometers Order Data
Dmitri Moisseev Particle Video Imager Order Data
Dmitri Moisseev Precipitation Gauges Order Data
Dmitri Moisseev Snow Depth Order Data
Dmitri Moisseev Video Disdrometer Order Data
Keri Nicoll Radiosondes - Extended Order Data
Tuukka Petaja Differential Mobility Analyzer Order Data
Herman Scott Cloud Optical Depth from the Three Waveband Spectrally-agile Technique (TWST) sensor Order Data
Stephen Springston Meteorological Data Order Data
Stephen Springston Ozone Order Data
Joel Thornton Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer Order Data

TMP Data Sources

Name Full Name Browse Data
AERI Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Browse Data
AOD Aerosol Optical Depth, derived from atmospheric extinction of solar irradiance Browse Data
AOS Aerosol Observing System Browse Data
AOSMET Meteorological Measurements associated with the Aerosol Observing System Browse Data
ASSIST Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology Browse Data
CCN Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter Browse Data
CEIL Ceilometer Browse Data
CPC Condensation Particle Counter Browse Data
CSPHOT Cimel Sunphotometer Browse Data
ECMWFDIAG European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses Browse Data
GNDRAD Ground Radiometers on Stand for Upwelling Radiation Browse Data
HSRL High Spectral Resolution Lidar Browse Data
HTDMA Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Browse Data
IRT Infrared Thermometer Browse Data
KASACR Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data
KAZR Ka ARM Zenith Radar Browse Data
MET Surface Meteorological Instrumentation Browse Data
MFRSR Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Browse Data
MPL Micropulse Lidar Browse Data
MPLCMASK Cloud mask from Micropulse Lidar Browse Data
MWACR Marine W-Band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data
MWR Microwave Radiometer Browse Data
MWR3C Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel Browse Data
NEPHELOMETER Nephelometer Browse Data
OZONE Ozone Monitor Browse Data
PBLHT Planetary Boundary Layer Height Browse Data
PSAP Particle Soot Absorption Photometer Browse Data
RAIN Rain Gauge Browse Data
RWP Radar Wind Profiler Browse Data
SACRADVVAD SACR Advance Velocity Azimuth Display Browse Data
SKYRAD Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation Browse Data
SONDE Balloon-Borne Sounding System Browse Data
TSI Total Sky Imager Browse Data
VDIS Video Disdrometer Browse Data
VISST Minnis Cloud Products Using Visst Algorithm Browse Data
WACRARSCL W-band Cloud Radar Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Browse Data
XSACR X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data