kazr: Ka ARM Zenith Radar

The Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) remotely probes the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The KAZR is a zenith-pointing Doppler radar that operates at a frequency of approximately 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine the first three Doppler moments (reflectivity, vertical velocity, and spectral width) at a range resolution of approximately 30 meters from near-ground to nearly 20 km in altitude.

The KAZR replaces the millimeter-wavelength cloud radar (MMCR) and uses a new digital receiver that provides higher spatial and temporal resolution than the MMCR. In addition, spectral artifacts in the data are significantly reduced in the KAZR, allowing researchers to study cloud dynamics much more closely than with the MMCR.



  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Related Publications


Kalesse H, G DeBoer, A Solomon, M Oue, M Ahlgrimm, D Zhang, M Shupe, E Luke, and A Protat. 2016. "Understanding Rapid Changes in Phase Partitioning between Cloud Liquid and Ice in Stratiform Mixed-Phase Clouds: An Arctic Case Study." Monthly Weather Review, 144(12), 10.1175/mwr-d-16-0155.1. ONLINE.

Matrosov SY. 2016. "Characteristic raindrop size retrievals from measurements of differences in vertical Doppler velocities at Ka- and W-band radar frequencies." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, , 10.1175/jtech-d-16-0181.1. ONLINE.

Petäjä T, EJ O'Connor, D Moisseev, VA Sinclair, AJ Manninen, R Väänänen, A von Lerber, JA Thornton, W Petersen, V Chandrasekar, JN Smith, PM Winkler, O Krüger, H Hakola, H Timonen, D Brus, T Laurila, E Asmi, M Riekkola, L Mona, P Massoli, R Engelmann, M Komppula, J Wang, C Kuang, J Bäck, V Annele, J Levula, M Ritsche, and N Hickmon. 2016. "BAECC: A Field Campaign to Elucidate the Impact of Biogenic Aerosols on Clouds and Climate." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 97(10), 10.1175/bams-d-14-00199.1.

Helmus JJ and SM Collis. 2016. "The Python ARM Radar Toolkit (Py-ART), a Library for Working with Weather Radar Data in the Python Programming Language." Journal of Open Research Software, 4(1), 10.5334/jors.119.

Sporre MK, EJ O'Connor, N Hakansson, A Thoss, E Swietlicki, and T Petaja. 2016. "Comparison of MODIS and VIIRS cloud properties with ARM ground-based observations over Finland." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 9(7), 10.5194/amt-9-3193-2016.

Delanoë J, A Protat, J Vinson, W Brett, C Caudoux, F Bertrand, J Parent du Chatelet, R Hallali, L Barthes, M Haeffelin, and J Dupont. 2016. "BASTA: A 95-GHz FMCW Doppler Radar for Cloud and Fog Studies." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 33(5), 10.1175/jtech-d-15-0104.1.

Giangrande SE, T Toto, A Bansemer, MR Kumjian, S Mishra, and A Ryzkhov. 2016. "Insights into riming and aggregation processes as revealed by aircraft, radar, and disdrometer observations for a 27 April 2011 widespread precipitation event." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121(10), 10.1002/2015jd024537. ONLINE.

Stepanian PM and KG Horton. 2016. The Nocturnal Avian Migration Experiment Final Campaign Report. DOE ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-15-009.

Kalesse H, W Szyrmer, S Kneifel, P Kollias, and E Luke. 2016. "Fingerprints of a riming event on cloud radar Doppler spectra: observations and modeling." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16(5), 10.5194/acp-16-2997-2016.

Wainwright CE, PM Stepanian, and KG Horton. 2016. "The role of the US Great Plains low-level jet in nocturnal migrant behavior." International Journal of Biometeorology, 60(10), 10.1007/s00484-016-1144-9. ONLINE.

View All Related Publications