Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

kazr > Ka ARM Zenith RadarInstrument Type(s) > Baseline • Guest

The Ka-band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR) remotely probes the extent and composition of clouds at millimeter wavelengths. The KAZR is a zenith-pointing Doppler radar that operates at a frequency of approximately 35 GHz. The main purpose of this radar is to determine the first three Doppler moments (reflectivity, vertical velocity, and spectral width) at a range resolution of approximately 30 meters from near-ground to nearly 20 kilometers in altitude.

The KAZR replaces the millimeter-wavelength cloud radar (MMCR) and uses a new digital receiver that provides higher spatial and temporal resolution than the MMCR. In addition, spectral artifacts in the data are significantly reduced in the KAZR, allowing researchers to study cloud dynamics much more closely than with the MMCR.

KAZR data from the 2018–2019 Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) field campaign in Argentina are now available as b1-level products. Building on the original CACTI operational data, the b1-level products feature improved data quality resulting from extensive analyses and corrections. The data are cross-calibrated to a common point, datastreams are corrected for operational issues that occurred during the campaign, and several data quality masks and basic derived products are incorporated. For more information, read the CACTI radar b1-level processing report.

Primary Derived Measurements


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3


Geiss A and J Hardin. 2021. "Inpainting radar missing data regions with deep learning." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 14(12), 10.5194/amt-14-7729-2021.

Hines K, D Bromwich, I Silber, L Russell, and L Bai. 2021. "Predicting Frigid Mixed‐Phase Clouds for Pristine Coastal Antarctica." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(23), e2021JD035112, 10.1029/2021JD035112.

Jensen M, V Ghate, D Wang, D Apoznanski, M Bartholomew, S Giangrande, K Johnson, and M Thieman. 2021. "Contrasting characteristics of open- and closed-cellular stratocumulus cloud in the eastern North Atlantic." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(19), 10.5194/acp-21-14557-2021.
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Riihimaki L, X Li, Z Hou, and L Berg. 2021. "Improving prediction of surface solar irradiance variability by integrating observed cloud characteristics and machine learning." Solar Energy, 225, 10.1016/j.solener.2021.07.047.

Ghate V, M Cadeddu, X Zheng, and E O'Connor. 2021. "Turbulence in the Marine Boundary Layer and Air Motions below Stratocumulus Clouds at the ARM Eastern North Atlantic Site." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 60(10), 10.1175/JAMC-D-21-0087.1.
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