xsacr: X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar

ARM’s scanning cloud radars are fully coherent dual-frequency, dual-polarization Doppler radars mounted on a common scanning pedestal. Each pedestal includes a Ka-band radar (2kW peak power) and the deployment location determines whether the second radar is a W-band (WSACR; 1.7 kW peak power) or X-band (XSACR; 20 kW peak power). At ARM’s tropical sites, X-band radars are paired with the Ka-band because they are better suited for the atmospheric attenuation in this region.

Beamwidth for the X-band is approximately 1 degree, and the Ka-band beamwidth is roughly 0.3 degrees. Due to the narrow antenna beamwidth, ARM’s scanning cloud radars use scanning strategies unlike typical weather radars. Rather than focusing on plan position indicator, or PPI, scans, the X-SACR uses range height indicator, or RHI, scans at numerous azimuths to obtain cloud volume data.

For the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2), the X-SACR can be dismounted from the pedestal it shares with the Ka-SACR and mounted on a separate pedestal. This allows the X-SACR to operate more like a weather (precipitation) radar in deployments where such local coverage is lacking.

Measurements collected with the X-SACR are copolar and cross-polar radar reflectivity, Doppler velocity, spectra width and spectra when not scanning, differential Reflectivity (Zdr), correlation coefficient (rho-hv), and specific differential phase (phi-dp).

Measurements

Locations

  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Active Instrument Locations

Facility Name Instrument Start Date
MOSAIC (Drifting Obs - Study of Arctic Climate); AMF2 2019-03-04

2019

Varble A, S Nesbitt, P Salio, E Avila, P Borque, P DeMott, G McFarquhar, S van den Heever, E Zipser, D Gochis, R Houze, M Jensen, P Kollias, S Kreidenweis, R Leung, K Rasmussen, D Romps, and C Williams. 2019. Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-19-028.

Mason S, R Hogan, C Westbrook, S Kneifel, D Moisseev, and L von Terzi. 2019. "The importance of particle size distribution and internal structure for triple-frequency radar retrievals of the morphology of snow." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 12(9), 10.5194/amt-12-4993-2019.

Li H and D Moisseev. 2019. "Melting layer attenuation at Ka‐ and W‐bands as derived from multi‐frequency radar Doppler spectra observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, , 10.1029/2019JD030316. ONLINE.
Research Highlight

Kalesse H, T Vogl, C Paduraru, and E Luke. 2019. "Development and validation of a supervised machine learning radar Doppler spectra peak-finding algorithm." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 12(8), 10.5194/amt-12-4591-2019.

Matsui T, B Dolan, S Rutledge, W Tao, T Iguchi, J Barnum, and S Lang. 2019. "POLARRIS: A POLArimetric Radar Retrieval and Instrument Simulator." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(8), doi:10.1029/2018JD028317.
Research Highlight

2018

Varble A, S Nesbit, P Salio, E Zipser, S van den Heever, G McFarquhar, P Kollias, S Kreidenweis, P DeMott, M Jensen, R Houze, Jr., K Rasmussen, R Leung, D Romps, D Gochis, E Avila, and C Williams. 2018. Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Science Plan. Ed. by Robert Stafford, DOE ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-17-004.

Mechem D and S Giangrande. 2018. "The Challenge of Identifying Controls on Cloud Properties and Precipitation Onset for Cumulus Congestus Sampled during MC3E." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(6), doi:10.1002/2017JD027457.
Research Highlight

Falconi M, A von Lerber, D Ori, F Marzano, and D Moisseev. 2018. "Snowfall retrieval at X, Ka and W band: consistency of backscattering and microphysical properties using BAECC ground-based measurements." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 11(5), 10.5194/amt-11-3059-2018.

2017

Korolev A, G McFarquhar, P Field, C Franklin, P Lawson, Z Wang, E Williams, S Abel, D Axisa, S Borrmann, J Crosier, J Fugal, M Kramer, U Lohmann, O Schlenczek, and M Wendisch. 2017. "Ice Formation and Evolution in Clouds and Precipitation: Measurement and Modeling Challenges. Chapter 5: Mixed-phase clouds: progress and challenges." Meteorological Monographs, 58, 10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-17-0001.1.

Verlinde J, MJ Bartholomew, J Cherry, and M Ritsche. 2017. North Slope of Alaska Snow Intensive Operational Period Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-17-018.


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