Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

ARM MJO Investigation Experiment on Gan Island

1 October 2011 - 31 March 2012

Lead Scientist: Chuck Long

Site: AMF

The overarching campaign, which included the AMF2 deployment in conjunction with the DYNAMO and CINDY2011 campaigns, was designed to test several current hypotheses regarding the mechanisms responsible for MJO (Madden-Julian Oscillation) initiation and propagation in the Indian Ocean area. The synergy between the proposed AMF2 deployment with DYNAMO/CINDY2011, and the corresponding funded experiment on Manus, combine for an overarching ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) with two components: AMF2 on Gan Island, Maldives (AMIE-Gan) where the MJO initiates and starts its eastward propagation, and the Manus ARM site (AMIE-Manus) which is in the general area where the MJO usually starts to weaken in climate models. AMIE-Gan provided measurements of particular interest to ASR researchers relevant to improving the representation of MJO initiation in climate models. The framework of DYNAMO/CINDY2011included two proposed island based sites, and two ship-based locations forming a square pattern with sonde profiles and scanning precipitation and cloud radars at both island and ship sites. These data were used to produce a Variational Analysis data set coinciding with the one produced for AMIE-Manus. The synergy between AMIE-Manus and AMIE-Gan allowed studies of the initiation, propagation, and evolution of the convective cloud population within the framework of the MJO. As with AMIE-Manus, AMIE-Gan/DYNAMO also included a significant modeling component geared toward improving the representation of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and forecast models.


Anthony Del Genio Stephen Klein Courtney Schumacher
William Gustafson Xiaohong Liu Andrew Vogelmann
Robert Houze Edward Luke Yi Wang
Christian Jakob Peter May Shaocheng Xie
Michael Jensen Sally McFarlane Chidong Zhang
Richard Johnson Patrick Minnis

Related Publications


Chen SS, BW Kerns, N Guy, DP Jorgensen, J Delanoe, N Viltard, CJ Zappa, F Judt, C Lee, and A Savarin. 2016. "Aircraft Observations of Dry Air, the ITCZ, Convective Cloud Systems, and Cold Pools in MJO during DYNAMO." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 97(3), 10.1175/bams-d-13-00196.1.


Thompson EJ, SA Rutledge, B Dolan, and M Thurai. 2015. "Drop Size Distributions and Radar Observations of Convective and Stratiform Rain over the Equatorial Indian and West Pacific Oceans." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 72(11), 10.1175/jas-d-14-0206.1.

Rowe AK and RA Houze Jr.. 2015. "Cloud organization and growth during the transition from suppressed to active MJO conditions." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120(19), 10.1002/2014jd022948.

Chandra A, C Zhang, P Kollias, S Matrosov, and W Szyrmer. 2015. "Automated rain rate estimates using the Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR)." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 8(9), 10.5194/amt-8-3685-2015.

Del Genio AD, J Wu, AB Wolf, Y Chen, M Yao, and D Kim. 2015. "Constraints on Cumulus Parameterization from Simulations of Observed MJO Events." Journal of Climate, 28(16), 10.1175/jcli-d-14-00832.1.

Feng Z, S Hagos, AK Rowe, CD Burleyson, MN Martini, and SP de Szoeke. 2015. "Mechanisms of convective cloud organization by cold pools over tropical warm ocean during the AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 7(2), 10.1002/2014ms000384.

Powell SW and RA Houze Jr.. 2015. "Effect of dry large-scale vertical motions on initial MJO convective onset." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120(10), 10.1002/2014jd022961.

Johnson RH, PE Ciesielski, JH Ruppert, and M Katsumata. 2015. "Sounding-Based Thermodynamic Budgets for DYNAMO." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 72(2), 10.1175/jas-d-14-0202.1.


Barnes HC and RA Houze Jr.. 2014. "Precipitation hydrometeor type relative to the mesoscale airflow in mature oceanic deep convection of the Madden-Julian Oscillation." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119(24), 10.1002/2014jd022241.

Deng M, P Kollias, Z Feng, C Zhang, CN Long, H Kalesse, A Chandra, VV Kumar, and A Protat. 2014. "Stratiform and Convective Precipitation Observed by Multiple Radars during the DYNAMO/AMIE Experiment." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 53(11), 10.1175/jamc-d-13-0311.1.

View All Related Publications

Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Zhe Feng Combined Remote Sensor Retrieval (CombRet) Order Data
Chuck Long Balloon-Borne Sounding System Order Data
Chuck Long Balloon-Borne Sounding System Order Data
Chuck Long Radiative Flux Analysis Evaluation Product Order Data
Mariko Oue Disdrometer Order Data
Shaocheng Xie Single Column Model Forcing Order Data

GAN Data Sources

Name Full Name Browse Data
AOD Aerosol Optical Depth, derived from atmospheric extinction of solar irradiance Browse Data
CEIL Ceilometer Browse Data
CSPHOT Cimel Sunphotometer Browse Data
ECMWFDIAG European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses Browse Data
GNDRAD Ground Radiometers on Stand for Upwelling Radiation Browse Data
HSRL High Spectral Resolution Lidar Browse Data
INTERPSONDE Interpolated Sonde Browse Data
KASACR Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data
KAZR Ka ARM Zenith Radar Browse Data
KAZRARSCL Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product using Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars Browse Data
KAZRCOR KAZR Corrected Data Browse Data
MERGESONDE Merged Sounding Browse Data
MET Surface Meteorological Instrumentation Browse Data
MFRSR Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Browse Data
MFRSRCLDOD Cloud Optical Properties from MFRSR Using Min Algorithm Browse Data
MPL Micropulse Lidar Browse Data
MPLCMASK Cloud mask from Micropulse Lidar Browse Data
MWR Microwave Radiometer Browse Data
MWR3C Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel Browse Data
MWRRET MWR Retrievals Browse Data
PBLHT Planetary Boundary Layer Height Browse Data
QCRAD Data Quality Assessment for ARM Radiation Data Browse Data
RADFLUXANAL Radiative Flux Analysis Browse Data
RAIN Rain Gauge Browse Data
SKYRAD Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation Browse Data
SONDE Balloon-Borne Sounding System Browse Data
SONDEADJUST Sonde Adjust Browse Data
SONDEGRID Gridded Sonde VAP Product Browse Data
TSI Total Sky Imager Browse Data
VDIS Video Disdrometer Browse Data
VISST Minnis Cloud Products Using Visst Algorithm Browse Data
XSACR X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data