Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China
15 May 2008 - 29 December 2008
Lead Scientist: Zhanqing Li
Observatory: amf, hfe
Aerosols in China have exceptionally high loading and diverse properties, and their influence has been detected across the Pacific Rim. The rapid pace of changes in the atmospheric environment over China provides a natural testbed for identifying and quantifying the climatic effects of aerosols. Preliminary analyses of multiple satellite data sets (MODIS, TMI, TRMM) indicated more complex and unique aerosol indirect effects than what is found in relatively cleaner environments. Unfortunately, China is one of the least observed regions, especially in terms of aerosol and cloud properties. To verify the satellite findings and gain a deeper understanding requires either in situ measurements or independent ground-based remote sensing data, or ideally both. To this end, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed in China in 2008 to enhance observation capability of a funded project to achieve the following goals:
- Acquisition of essential cloud, aerosol, and meteorological parameters using the AMF to validate satellite-based findings
- Use of AMF measurements together with validated satellite retrievals and in situ data to understand the mechanisms of the aerosol indirect effects in the region
- Examination of the roles of aerosols in affecting regional climate and atmospheric circulation with a special focus on the impact of the East Asian monsoon system.
Researchers tested the following scientific hypotheses through the AMF deployment in China:
- Aerosols play a major role in the inconsistent results from rain remote sensing.
- Aerosol loading in China is so heavy that it significantly affects the dynamics of the monsoon system.
- Aerosol types and meteorological conditions in China are so diverse that they have distinct climatic effects.
Testing these hypotheses required AMF, satellite and aircraft observations of the following variables:
- Aerosol optical (optical depth, single scattering albedo, etc.), microphysical (size distribution), and chemical (composition) properties, as well as vertical profiles
- Cloud properties (cloud fraction, cloud optical depth, cloud liquid water path, location of cloud layers, cloud phase, etc.)
- Radiative quantities (total broadband and narrowband spectral radiances and irradiances, direct and diffuse irradiances)
- Thermodynamic and dynamical properties (e.g., atmospheric soundings and cloud updraft velocities).
Researchers chose to study the Yangtze delta region in southeast China, the center of the satellite rainfall retrieval anomaly and also the area where the aerosol optical depth distribution in China is maximal. Continuous measurements were made for some of the key variables listed above for nearly a year prior, thanks to the logistical and scientific support provided by personnel at the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Zhang J, Y Zheng, Z Li, X Xia, and H Chen. 2020. "A 17-year climatology of temperature inversions above clouds over the ARM SGP site: The roles of cloud radiative effects." Atmospheric Research, 237, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2019.104810.
Muradyan P and R Coulter. 2020. Radar Wind Profiler (RWP) and Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) Instrument Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-044. 10.2172/1020560.
Boers R, F Bosveld, H Baltink, W Knap, E van Meijgaard, and W Wauben. 2019. "Observing and Modelling the Surface Radiative Budget and Cloud Radiative Forcing at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR), the Netherlands, 2009–17." Journal of Climate, 32(21), 10.1175/JCLI-D-18-0828.1.
Tang S, C Tao, S Xie, and M Zhang. 2019. Description of the ARM Large-Scale Forcing Data from the Constrained Variational Analysis (VARANAL) Version 2. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-222. 10.2172/1808705.
Tang S, S Xie, Y Zhang, and DR Cook. 2019. The QCECOR Value-Added Product: Quality-Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux Measurements. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-223. 10.2172/1557426.
Liu J and Z Li. 2018. "First surface-based estimation of the aerosol indirect effect over a site in southeastern China." Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 35(2), 10.1007/s00376-017-7106-2.
Wang C, Y Shen, F Luo, L Cao, J Yan, and H Jiang. 2017. "Comparison and analysis of several planetary boundary layer schemes in WRF model between clear and overcast days." Chinese Journal of Geophysics, 60(3), 10.6038/cjg20170307.
Li Z, W Lau, V Ramanathan, G Qu, Y Ding, MG Manoj, J Liu, Y Qian, J Li, T Zhou, J Fan, D Rosenfeld, Y Ming, Y Wang, J Huang, B Wang, X Xu, S Lee, MC Cribb, F Zhang, X Yang, C Zhao, T Takemura, K Wang, X Xia, Y Yin, H Zhang, J Guo, PM Zhai, N Sugimoto, SS Babu, and GP Brasseur. 2016. "Aerosol and monsoon climate interactions over Asia." Reviews of Geophysics, 54(4), 10.1002/2015rg000500.
Zhang J, J Li, X Xia, H Chen, and C Ling. 2016. "Cloud properties under different synoptic circulations: Comparison of radiosonde and ground-based active remote sensing measurements." Atmosphere, 7(12), 10.3390/atmos7120154.
Bu L, H Pan, KR Kumar, X Huang, H Gau, X Liu, and D Kim. 2016. "Lidar and Millimeter-Wave Cloud Radar (MWCR) techniques for joint observations of cirrus in Shouxian (32.56n, 116.78e), China." Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 148, 10.1016/j.jastp.2016.08.013.
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Campaign Data Sets
|IOP Participant||Data Source Name||Final Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||Aerodynamic Part Sizer||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||Broadband Radiometers||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||CIMEL Sunphotometer||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||Condensation Particle Counter||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||Gas Monitors||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||Micropulse Lidar||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||Particle Soot Absorption Photometer - G-1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||Radiance Research Nephelometer||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||Radiosonde Data||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||Scanning Microwave Radiometer||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||TEOM||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||TSI Nephelometer||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||Total Sky Imager||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||UV Radiometer||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||Visibility||Order Data|
|Si-Chee Tsay||Weather||Order Data|
HFE Data Sources
|Name||Full Name||Browse Data|
||Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer||Browse Data|
||AERI Noise Filtered||Browse Data|
||Aerosol Intensive Properties||Browse Data|
||Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) derived from MFRSR measurements||Browse Data|
||Aerosol Observing System||Browse Data|
||Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter||Browse Data|
||European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses||Browse Data|
||Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System||Browse Data|
||Ground Radiometers on Stand for Upwelling Radiation||Browse Data|
||Merged Sounding||Browse Data|
||Surface Meteorological Instrumentation||Browse Data|
||Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer||Browse Data|
||Micropulse Lidar||Browse Data|
||MPL: data averaged to fixed 30 second interval, e.g. for polarized data||Browse Data|
||Cloud mask from Micropulse Lidar||Browse Data|
||Multi-Functional Transport Satellite||Browse Data|
||Microwave Radiometer||Browse Data|
||Microwave Radiometer - High Frequency||Browse Data|
||Microwave Radiometer Profiler||Browse Data|
||MWR Retrievals||Browse Data|
||National Centers for Environment Prediction Global Forecast System||Browse Data|
||Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer||Browse Data|
||Planetary Boundary Layer Height||Browse Data|
||Quality Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement||Browse Data|
||Data Quality Assessment for ARM Radiation Data||Browse Data|
||Radiation Measurements at AMF||Browse Data|
||Radiative Flux Analysis||Browse Data|
||Radar Wind Profiler||Browse Data|
||Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation||Browse Data|
||Balloon-Borne Sounding System||Browse Data|
||Sonde Adjust||Browse Data|
||Total Sky Imager||Browse Data|
||Constrained Variational Analysis||Browse Data|
||Minnis Cloud Products Using Visst Algorithm||Browse Data|
||W-Band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar||Browse Data|
||W-band Cloud Radar Active Remote Sensing of Cloud||Browse Data|