MArine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle (MASRAD) IOP
14 March 2005 - 14 September 2005
Lead Scientist: Mark Miller
Observatory: AMF, PYE
The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed to Point Reyes National Seashore on the California coast to study the microphysical and radiative characteristics of marine stratus, one of the most prevalent clouds on Earth. Marine stratus is an important yet undersampled component of the Earth’s climate system. These clouds are known to be susceptible to infusions of human-caused aerosols that likely alter the in-cloud microphysical processes and are known to have at least two stable modes: one with relatively large cloud droplets and relatively large drizzle rates, and another with relatively smaller cloud droplets and little or no drizzle. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) apparently play a critical role in determining which stable mode is observed. Marine stratus clouds also exhibit a strong diurnal cycle due to a pronounced cloud and radiation feedback involving changes in the net radiative flux at the cloud top.
Researchers had two main scientific objectives: 1) to investigate the general relationship between cloud mesoscale structure, aerosols, cloud microphysics, drizzle, and radiation in marine stratus clouds; and 2) the specific effects of aerosols on the discrepancy between the measured and modeled amount of solar radiation absorbed by these clouds. These scientific objectives were investigated by combining detailed cloud, drizzle, and radiation measurements from the AMF 94-GHz radar and other sensors with detailed aircraft profiles, which included comprehensive aerosol measurements. The effects of aerosols on the amount of solar radiation absorbed by marine stratus were quantified using similar methods supplemented by state-of-the-art in-cloud radiation measurements made from aircraft. These combined measurements improved on previous studies addressing the discrepancy between models and observations of the solar absorption of clouds by direct and accurate observation of the ambient aerosols, surface albedo, and downwelling solar flux. In particular, highly accurate solar flux measurements were obtained from a state-of-the-art, stabilized platform for making radiometric measurements from an aircraft.
The research proposal leveraged experimental activities conducted in the Point Reyes area during the summer of 2005 in conjunction with research supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), the Naval Research Laboratory, and the DOE Aerosol Science Program. The ONR experiments included the use of a scanning (military, phased array) X-band (3.2-centimeter wavelength), scanning Doppler radar to study the mesoscale organization of drizzle patches embedded in marine stratocumulus in the region. There were opportunities for coincident aerosol and radiation data to be collected in the vicinity of the AMF site with the CIRPAS Twin Otter and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory G-1 research aircraft.
Hudson JG and S Noble. 2015. "Reply to comment by Yangang Liu et al. on “Cloud droplet spectral width relationship to CCN spectra and vertical velocity"." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119(4), 10.1002/2013jd020559.
Noble S and JG Hudson. 2015. "MODIS comparisons with northeastern Pacific in situ stratocumulus microphysics." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120(16), 10.1002/2014jd022785.
Hudson JG and S Noble. 2014. "Low-altitude summer/winter microphysics, dynamics, and CCN spectra of northeastern Caribbean small cumuli, and comparisons with stratus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119(9), 10.1002/2013jd021442.
de Boer G, SE Bauer, T Toto, S Menon, and AM Vogelmann. 2013. "Evaluation of aerosol-cloud interaction in the GISS ModelE using ARM observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(12), 10.1002/jgrd.50460.
Oreopoulos L, E Mlawer, J Delamere, T Shippert, J Cole, B Fomin, M Iacono, Z Jin, J Li, J Manners, P Raisanen, F Rose, Y Zhang, MJ Wilson, and WB Rossow. 2012. "The Continual Intercomparison of Radiation Codes: Results from Phase I." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 117(D6), 10.1029/2011jd016821.
McComiskey A and G Feingold. 2012. "The scale problem in quantifying aerosol indirect effects." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 12(2), 10.5194/acp-12-1031-2012.
de Boer G, S Menon, S Bauer, T Toto, A Vogelmann, and M Cribb. 2012. Evaluation of Aerosol-cloud Interactions in GISS ModelE Using ARM Observations. Presented at 3rd Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting. Arlington, VA.
Khaiyer M, P Minnis, D Doelling, R Palikonda, M Nordeen, H Yi, R Boeke, and D Spangenberg. 2012. Improved TOA Broadband Shortwave and Longwave Fluxes over Various ARM Domains. Presented at 3rd Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting. Arlington, VA.
Minnis P, S Sun-Mack, Y Chen, MM Khaiyer, Y Yi, JK Ayers, RR Brown, X Dong, SC Gibson, PW Heck, B Lin, ML Nordeen, L Nguyen, R Palikonda, WL Smith, Jr., DA Spangenberg, Q Trepte, and B Xi. 2011. "CERES Edition-2 Cloud Property Retrievals Using TRMM VIRS and Terra and Aqua MODIS Data—Part II: Examples of Average Results and Comparisons With Other Data." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 49(11), 10.1109/tgrs.2011.2144602.
Ching J, N Riemer, M Dunn, and M Miller. 2010. "In-cloud turbulence structure of marine stratocumulus." Geophysical Research Letters, 37(21), 10.1029/2010GL045033.
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Campaign Data Sets
|IOP Participant||Data Source Name||Final Data|
|Carl Berkowitz||Aerosol Mass Spectrometer||Order Data|
|Richard Coulter||915 MHz Radar-Wind Profiler||Order Data|
|Richard Coulter||Micropulse Lidar||Order Data|
|Laurie Gregory||Rapid Update Cycle Model Data||Order Data|
|Pavlos Kollias||94 GHz Radar||Order Data|
|Alexander Laskin||Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CVI inlet)||Order Data|
|Alexander Laskin||Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (CVI inlet)||Order Data|
|Alexander Laskin||Time Resolved Aerosol Collectors (AOS inlet)||Order Data|
|Alexander Laskin||Time Resolved Aerosol Collectors (CVI inlet)||Order Data|
|Chuck Long||Surface Flux Analysis||Order Data|
|Chuck Long||Surface Radiation Data- QC||Order Data|
|Anthony Strawa||CADENZA||Order Data|
|Jian Wang||Scanning mobility particle sizer||Order Data|
|Anthony Wexler||Aerodynamic Part Sizer||Order Data|
|Anthony Wexler||Scanning mobility particle sizer||Order Data|
|Warren Wiscombe||Narrow Field of View Sensor||Order Data|
PYE Data Sources
|Name||Full Name||Browse Data|
||Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer||Browse Data|
||AERI Noise Filtered||Browse Data|
||Aerosol Intensive Properties||Browse Data|
||Aerosol Optical Depth, derived from atmospheric extinction of solar irradiance||Browse Data|
||Aerosol Observing System||Browse Data|
||Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter||Browse Data|
||European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses||Browse Data|
||Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System||Browse Data|
||Ground Radiometers on Stand for Upwelling Radiation||Browse Data|
||Merged Sounding||Browse Data|
||Surface Meteorological Instrumentation||Browse Data|
||Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer||Browse Data|
||Cloud Optical Properties from MFRSR Using Min Algorithm||Browse Data|
||Model Output Location Time Series||Browse Data|
||Micropulse Lidar||Browse Data|
||Microwave Radiometer||Browse Data|
||Microwave Radiometer Profiler||Browse Data|
||MWR Retrievals||Browse Data|
||National Centers for Environment Prediction Global Forecast System||Browse Data|
||Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer||Browse Data|
||Planetary Boundary Layer Height||Browse Data|
||Quality Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement||Browse Data|
||Data Quality Assessment for ARM Radiation Data||Browse Data|
||Radiative Flux Analysis||Browse Data|
||Rapid Update Cycle Model Data||Browse Data|
||Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation||Browse Data|
||Balloon-Borne Sounding System||Browse Data|
||Sonde Adjust||Browse Data|
||Total Sky Imager||Browse Data|
||Tower Camera||Browse Data|
||Minnis Cloud Products Using Visst Algorithm||Browse Data|