mergesonde > Merged SoundingVAP Type(s) > Baseline • Evaluation

mergesondeThe Merged Sounding value-added product uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, microwave radiometers, surface meteorological instruments, and European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output. Sophisticated scaling/interpolation/smoothing techniques are employed to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at 1-minute intervals and at 266 altitude levels.

For more details, read the Merged Sounding value-added product technical report.



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  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Data Details

Contact Scott Giangrande
Resource(s) Data Directory
Content time range 15 July 1996 - 5 March 2019


Borque P, S Nesbitt, R Trapp, S Lasher-Trapp, and M Oue. 2019. "Observational study of the thermodynamics and morphological characteristics of a midlatitude continental cold pool event." Monthly Weather Review, 148(2), 10.1175/MWR-D-19-0068.1.

Jensen M, E Bruning, D Collins, A Fridlind, P Kollias, C Kuang, D Rosenfeld, A Ryzhkov, A Varble, SD Brooks, S Collis, E Defer, J Fan, J Flynn, S Giangrande, R Griffin, J Hu, R Jackson, M Kumjian, T Logan, T Matsui, G McFarquhar, C Nowotarski, J Quaas, M Oue, R Sheesley, J Snyder, P Stier, S Usenko, S van den Heever, M van Lier Walqui, Y Wang, Y Xu, and G Zhang. 2019. Tracking Aerosol Convection Interactions ExpeRiment (TRACER) Science Plan. Ed. by Robert Stafford, DOE/SC-ARM-19-017.


Ahmed F and C Schumacher. 2018. "Spectral Signatures of Moisture–Convection Feedbacks over the Indian Ocean." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 75(6), 10.1175/JAS-D-17-0138.1.


Zhang J, X Xia, and H Chen. 2017. "A comparison of cloud layers from ground and satellite active remote sensing at the Southern Great Plains ARM site." Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 34(3), 10.1007/s00376-016-6030-1.


Dolinar E, X Dong, B Xi, J Jiang, and N Loeb. 2016. "A clear-sky radiation closure study using a one-dimensional radiative transfer model and collocated satellite-surface-reanalysis data sets." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121(22), 10.1002/2016JD025823.

Van Weverberg K, IA Boutle, CJ Morcrette, and RK Newsom. 2016. "Towards retrieving critical relative humidity from ground-based remote-sensing observations." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 142(700), 10.1002/qj.2874.
Research Highlight

Tian J, X Dong, B Xi, J Wang, CR Homeyer, GM McFarquhar, and J Fan. 2016. "Retrievals of ice cloud microphysical properties of deep convective systems using radar measurements." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121(18), 10.1002/2015jd024686.
Research Highlight

Borque P, E Luke, and P Kollias. 2016. "On the unified estimation of turbulence eddy dissipation rate using Doppler cloud radars and lidars." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121(10), 10.1002/2015jd024543.

Deng M, GG Mace, Z Wang, and E Berry. 2016. "CloudSat 2C-ICE product update with a new Z(e) parameterization in lidar-only region." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120(23), 10.1002/2015jd023600.


Lamer K and P Kollias. 2015. "Observations of fair-weather cumuli over land: Dynamical factors controlling cloud size and cover." Geophysical Research Letters, 42(20), 10.1002/2015gl064534.
Research Highlight

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