Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

interpsonde > Interpolated SondeVAP Type(s) > Baseline

ARM radiosonde (SONDE) files provide a key reference to the atmospheric state, but this is only available at the time of those radiosonde launches. However, many applications or retrievals may require a quick estimate of the atmospheric state at higher time resolution, or may simply demand a more convenient time-height gridding of these SONDE data. The Interpolated Sonde (INTERPSONDE) value-added product (VAP) transforms ARM SONDE data into continuous daily files with thermodynamic parameters on fixed time-height grids. INTERPSONDE linearly interpolates the atmospheric state variables from available SONDE data sets in time for each height level.

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There are various benefits to the separate SONDE files and radiosonde VAPs. The INTERPSONDE VAP faithfully reports the same thermodynamic profile at the time of the ARM radiosonde launch. By excluding model outputs, INTERPSONDE products are typically available for download faster than ARM’s Merged Sounding (MERGESONDE) VAP, and these thermodynamic profiles are independent of model influence as in MERGESONDE. For sites with frequent radiosonde launches, INTERPSONDE may more directly facilitate model evaluation with radiosonde observations. Because of this short turnaround period for product generation, the INTERPSONDE VAP is used by several routine ARM retrieval products such as the ARSCL and MICROBASE suites of cloud property VAPs.

This VAP provides one-minute time resolution. For additional information on the VAP interpolation procedures, please consult the technical report for the product.


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3


Kingsmill D, M Seefeldt, and J Cassano. 2022. "Mesoscale evaluation of AMPS using AWARE radar observations of a wind and precipitation event over the Ross Island region of Antarctica." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, , 10.1002/qj.4327.

Feng Z, A Varble, J Hardin, J Marquis, A Hunzinger, Z Zhang, and M Thieman. 2022. "Deep Convection Initiation, Growth, and Environments in the Complex Terrain of Central Argentina during CACTI." Monthly Weather Review, 150(5), 10.1175/MWR-D-21-0237.1.

Van Weverberg K and C Morcrette. 2022. "Sensitivity of Cloud‐Radiative Effects to Cloud Fraction Parametrizations in Tropical, Mid‐Latitude and Arctic Kilometre‐Scale Simulations." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, , 10.1002/qj.4325.


Fitch K and T Garrett. 2021. "Graupel Precipitating from Thin Arctic Clouds with Liquid Water Paths less than 50 g m-2." Geophysical Research Letters, 49(1), e2021GL094075, 10.1029/2021GL094075.

Miller M, Z Mages, Q Zheng, L Trabachino, L Russell, J Shilling, and M Zawadowicz. 2021. "Observed Relationships between Cloud Droplet Effective Radius and Biogenic Gas Concentrations in Summertime Marine Stratocumulus over the Eastern North Atlantic." Earth and Space Science, 9(2), e2021EA001929, 10.1029/2021EA001929. ONLINE.

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Scott Giangrande
Brookhaven National Laboratory

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