Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC)
1 April 2008 - 30 April 2008
Lead Scientist: Steven Ghan
An intensive cloud and aerosol observing system was deployed to the ARM Climate Research Facility’s (ACRF) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) locale for three weeks in April 2008. This period was chosen because it was during the International Polar Year when many ancillary observing systems were collecting data that would be synergistic for interpreting the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) data. It also provided an important contrast with the October 2004 Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE). Thirty to 45 hours of flight time were required with aircraft capable of measuring temperature, humidity, total particle number, aerosol size distribution, aerosol hygroscopicity, cloud condensation nuclei concentration, ice nuclei concentration, optical scattering and absorption, updraft velocity, cloud liquid water and ice contents, cloud droplet and crystal size distributions, cloud particle shape, and cloud extinction. In addition to these aircraft measurements, there was a surface deployment of a spectroradiometer for retrieving cloud optical depth and effective radius.
These measurements will be used by members of the ARM Science Team to answer the following key questions:
How do properties of the arctic aerosol during April differ from those measured during the MPACE in October?
To what extent do the different properties of the arctic aerosol during April produce differences in the microphysical and macrophysical properties of clouds and the surface energy balance?
To what extent can cloud models and the cloud parameterizations used in climate models simulate the sensitivity of arctic clouds and the surface energy budget to the differences in aerosol between April and October?
How well can long-term surface-based measurements at the ACRF NSA locale provide retrievals of aerosol, cloud, precipitation, and radiative heating in the Arctic?
By using many of the same instruments used during M-PACE, we were able to contrast the arctic aerosol and cloud properties during October and April. The aerosol measurements can be used in cloud models driven by objectively analyzed boundary conditions to test whether the cloud models can simulate the aerosol influence on the clouds. The influence of aerosol and boundary conditions on the simulated clouds can be separated by running the cloud models with all four combinations of M-PACE and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions: M-PACE aerosol and boundary conditions, M-PACE aerosol and ISDAC boundary conditions, ISDAC aerosol and M-PACE boundary conditions, and ISDAC aerosol and boundary conditions. ISDAC and M-PACE boundary conditions were likely to be very different because of the much more extensive ocean water during M-PACE. The uniformity of the surface conditions during ISDAC greatly simplifies the objective analysis (surface fluxes and precipitation are very weak), so that it can largely rely on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analysis. The ISDAC cloud measurements can be used to evaluate the cloud simulations and to evaluate cloud retrievals. The aerosol measurements can also be used to evaluate the aerosol retrievals. By running the cloud models with and without solar absorption by the aerosols, we can determine the semi-direct effect of the aerosol on the clouds.
Keita S, E Girard, J Raut, M Leriche, J Blanchet, J Pelon, T Onishi, and A Cirisan. 2020. "A new parameterization of ice heterogeneous nucleation coupled to aerosol chemistry in WRF-Chem model version 3.5.1: evaluation through ISDAC measurements." Geoscientific Model Development, 13(11), 10.5194/gmd-13-5737-2020.
Ahola J, H Korhonen, J Tonttila, S Romakkaniemi, H Kokkola, and T Raatikainen. 2020. "Modelling mixed-phase clouds with the large-eddy model UCLALES–SALSA." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(19), 10.5194/acp-20-11639-2020.
Zhang X, T Schneider, and C Kaul. 2020. "Sensitivity of idealized mixed‐phase stratocumulus to climate perturbations." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, , 10.1002/qj.3846. ONLINE.
Pai S, C Heald, J Pierce, S Farina, E Marais, J Jimenez, P Campuzano-Jost, B Nault, A Middlebrook, H Coe, J Shilling, R Bahreini, J Dingle, and K Vu. 2020. "An evaluation of global organic aerosol schemes using airborne observations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(5), 10.5194/acp-20-2637-2020.
Joe P, S Melo, W Burrows, B Casati, R Crawford, A Deghan, G Gascon, Z Mariani, J Milbrandt, and K Strawbridge. 2019. "The Canadian Arctic Weather Science Project: Introduction to the Iqaluit Site." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 101(2), 10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0291.1.
Lawson R, S Woods, E Jensen, E Erfani, C Gurganus, M Gallagher, P Connolly, J Whiteway, A Baran, P May, A Heymsfield, C Schmitt, G McFarquhar, J Um, A Protat, M Bailey, S Lance, A Muehlbauer, J Stith, A Korolev, O Toon, and M Krämer. 2019. "A Review of Ice Particle Shapes in Cirrus formed In Situ and in Anvils." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124, 10.1029/2018JD030122.
Keita S, E Girard, J Raut, J Pelon, J Blanchet, O Lemoine, and T Onishi. 2019. "Simulating Arctic Ice Clouds during Spring Using an Advanced Ice Cloud Microphysics in the WRF Model." Atmosphere, 10(8), 10.3390/atmos10080433.
Matrosov S, M Maahn, and G de Boer. 2019. "Observational and modeling study of ice hydrometeor radar dual-wavelength ratios." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 58(9), 10.1175/JAMC-D-19-0018.1.
Shi Y and X Liu. 2019. "Dust Radiative Effects on Climate by Glaciating Mixed‐Phase Clouds." Geophysical Research Letters, , doi:10.1029/2019GL082504.
Ghate V, P Kollias, S Crewell, A Fridlind, T Heus, U Löehnert, M Maahn, G McFarquhar, D Moisseev, M Oue, M Wendisch, and C Williams. 2019. "The Second ARM Training and Science Application Event: Training the Next Generation of Atmospheric Scientists." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100(1), 10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0242.1.
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Campaign Data Sets
|IOP Participant||Data Source Name||Final Data|
|Sarah Brooks||Continuous Flow Thermal Diffusion Chamber||Order Data|
|Don Collins||Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer||Order Data|
|Manvendra Dubey||Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer||Order Data|
|Richard Ferrare||HSR Lidar||Order Data|
|Ismail Gultepe||Climatronics Aerosol Profiler||Order Data|
|Ismail Gultepe||Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI)||Order Data|
|Ismail Gultepe||Fog Monitoring Device||Order Data|
|Ismail Gultepe||Radiometer Suite (Tilt Corrected Data)||Order Data|
|Ismail Gultepe||Road Surface State Sensor||Order Data|
|Ismail Gultepe||Sentry Visibility Sensor||Order Data|
|Ismail Gultepe||Snow Depth||Order Data|
|Ismail Gultepe||Total Precipitation Sensor||Order Data|
|Ismail Gultepe||Vaisala Precipitation Gauge||Order Data|
|Ismail Gultepe||Vaisala Weather Sensor||Order Data|
|Ismail Gultepe||Young Ultrasonic Anemometer||Order Data|
|Ismail Gultepe||disdro||Order Data|
|Alexei Korolev||Korolev Cloud Extinction Probe||Order Data|
|Alexander Laskin||Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter||Order Data|
|Paul Lawson||2D-S Particle Size||Order Data|
|Paul Lawson||Cloud Particle Imager (CPI)||Order Data|
|Dan Lubin||ASD Spectroradiometer||Order Data|
|Ann Marie Macdonald||Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI)||Order Data|
|Greg McFarquhar||Cloud Droplet Probe||Order Data|
|Greg McFarquhar||Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer||Order Data|
|Greg McFarquhar||Microphysical Cloud Properties-McFarquhar-Zhang||Order Data|
|John Ogren||Nephelometer||Order Data|
|John Ogren||Particle Soot Absorption Photometer - G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|J. Walter Strapp||2D Probes||Order Data|
|J. Walter Strapp||Cloud Aerosol Precip Spectrometer(CAPS)/Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP)||Order Data|
|J. Walter Strapp||Convair 580 State Parameters||Order Data|
|J. Walter Strapp||FSSP 100||Order Data|
|J. Walter Strapp||FSSP 300||Order Data|
|J. Walter Strapp||Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer||Order Data|
|J. Walter Strapp||Radiometer||Order Data|
|J. Walter Strapp||Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer and Condensation Particle Counter||Order Data|
|Mengistu Wolde||CONVAIR Cabin||Order Data|
|Mengistu Wolde||NAWX Radar||Order Data|
|Shaocheng Xie||Constrained Variational Objective Analysis Data||Order Data|
|Shaocheng Xie||European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting||Order Data|
|Alla Zelenyuk-Imre||Single Particle Laser Ablasion Time||Order Data|