Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE)
27 September 2004 - 21 October 2004
Lead Scientist: Johannes Verlinde
The major objective of the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) was to collect a focused set of observations needed to advance our understanding of the dynamical and processes in mixed-phase arctic clouds, including cloud microphysical processes and radiative transfer through these clouds.
The M-PACE consisted of four surface-based sites the two DOE-ARM NSA sites Barrow and Atqasuk supplemented by another remote sensing site at Oliktok Point and a radiosonde site in the interior. The Oliktok Point site was equipped with an ARM-like remote sensing facility, supplemented by a tethered balloon equipped with basic met, radiation and CPI capability. Aircraft equipped with the full complement of microphysical and radiation instruments documented cloud properties between these four points.
The University of North Dakota Citation was the in situ platform, while the DOE-ARM UAV served as a high-flying remote sensing platform. In addition to its standard set of microphysical measurement systems, the Citation was equipped with the NCAR CCN counter and the CSU IN counter, while the UAV had downward looking cloud radar, lidar and HIS in addition to its complement of in situ microphysical measurement systems.
Scientific Requirement (succinct statement of underlying hypothesis or technical goal for proposed research): See http://www.meteo.psu.edu/~verlinde/mpace.html*.
This experiment provided critical measurements to make progress in the development of retrieval algorithms for application at the North Slope. Moreover, it provided the physical understanding necessary to parameterize arctic cloud processes.
*Link is currently unavailable.
Zhang X, T Schneider, and C Kaul. 2020. "Sensitivity of idealized mixed‐phase stratocumulus to climate perturbations." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, , 10.1002/qj.3846. ONLINE.
Zhang M, S Xie, X Liu, W Lin, K Zhang, H Ma, X Zheng, and Y Zhang. 2020. "Toward Understanding the Simulated Phase Partitioning of Arctic Single‐Layer Mixed‐Phase Clouds in E3SM." Earth and Space Science, 7(7), e2020EA001125, 10.1029/2020EA001125.
Fu S, X Deng, M Shupe, and H Xue. 2019. "A modelling study of the continuous ice formation in an autumnal Arctic mixed-phase cloud case." Atmospheric Research, 228, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2019.05.021.
Zhang M, X Liu, M Diao, J D'Alessandro, Y Wang, C Wu, D Zhang, Z Wang, and S Xie. 2019. "Impacts of representing heterogeneous distribution of cloud liquid and ice on phase partitioning of Arctic mixed‐phase clouds with NCAR CAM5." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(23), 10.1029/2019JD030502.
Tang S, C Tao, S Xie, and M Zhang. 2019. Description of the ARM Large-Scale Forcing Data from the Constrained Variational Analysis (VARANAL) Version 2. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-222.
Schmitt C, K Sulia, Z Lebo, A Heymsfield, V Przybyo, and P Connolly. 2019. "The fall speed variability of similarly sized ice particle aggregates." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 58(8), doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-18-0291.1.
Shi Y and X Liu. 2019. "Dust Radiative Effects on Climate by Glaciating Mixed‐Phase Clouds." Geophysical Research Letters, , doi:10.1029/2019GL082504.
Gettelman A, J Truesdale, J Bacmeister, P Caldwell, R Neale, P Bogenschutz, and I Simpson. 2019. "The Single Column Atmosphere Model Version 6 (SCAM6): Not a Scam but a Tool for Model Evaluation and Development." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 11(5), 10.1029/2018MS001578.
Solomon A, G de Boer, J Creamean, A McComiskey, M Shupe, M Maahn, and C Cox. 2018. "The relative impact of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particle concentrations on phase partitioning in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus clouds." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(23), 10.5194/acp-18-17047-2018.
Grosvenor D, O Sourdeval, P Zuidema, A Ackerman, M Alexandrov, R Bennartz, R Boers, B Cairns, J Chiu, M Christensen, H Deneke, M Diamond, G Feingold, A Fridlind, A Hünerbein, C Knist, P Kollias, A Marshak, D McCoy, D Merk, D Painemal, J Rausch, D Rosenfeld, H Russchenberg, P Seifert, K Sinclair, P Stier, B van Diedenhoven, M Wendisch, F Werner, R Wood, Z Zhang, and J Quaas. 2018. "Remote Sensing of Droplet Number Concentration in Warm Clouds: A Review of the Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives." Reviews of Geophysics, 56(2), 10.1029/2017RG000593.
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Campaign Data Sets
|IOP Participant||Data Source Name||Final Data|
|Chad Bahrmann||METAR||Order Data|
|Maria Cadeddu||Microwave Radiometer Profiler||Order Data|
|Paul DeMott||CFDC||Order Data|
|Andrew Heymsfield||Citation||Order Data|
|Greg Kok||Citation||Order Data|
|Chuck Long||Surface Flux Analysis||Order Data|
|James Mather||PARSL||Order Data|
|Greg McFarquhar||Microphysical Cloud Properties-McFarquhar-Zhang||Order Data|
|Patrick Minnis||visst||Order Data|
|Victor Morris||Total Sky Imager||Order Data|
|Walter Oechel||ameriflux-ecor||Order Data|
|Michael Poellot||Citation||Order Data|
|Tim Tooman||Proteus||Order Data|
|David Turner||AERI||Order Data|
|David Turner||MWR Retrievals||Order Data|
|Johannes Verlinde||Balloon-borne sounding system(s)||Order Data|
|Shaocheng Xie||Constrained Variational Objective Analysis Data||Order Data|
|Shaocheng Xie||Eta Model Runs||Order Data|
|Shaocheng Xie||European Centre for Medium Range Forecasting||Order Data|
|Bernard Zak||Tether Sonde||Order Data|