Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE)

27 September 2004 - 21 October 2004

Lead Scientist: Johannes Verlinde

Observatory: NSA

The major objective of the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) was to collect a focused set of observations needed to advance our understanding of the dynamical and processes in mixed-phase arctic clouds, including cloud microphysical processes and radiative transfer through these clouds.

The M-PACE consisted of four surface-based sites the two DOE-ARM NSA sites Barrow and Atqasuk supplemented by another remote sensing site at Oliktok Point and a radiosonde site in the interior. The Oliktok Point site was equipped with an ARM-like remote sensing facility, supplemented by a tethered balloon equipped with basic met, radiation and CPI capability. Aircraft equipped with the full complement of microphysical and radiation instruments documented cloud properties between these four points.

The University of North Dakota Citation was the in situ platform, while the DOE-ARM UAV served as a high-flying remote sensing platform. In addition to its standard set of microphysical measurement systems, the Citation was equipped with the NCAR CCN counter and the CSU IN counter, while the UAV had downward looking cloud radar, lidar and HIS in addition to its complement of in situ microphysical measurement systems.

Scientific Requirement (succinct statement of underlying hypothesis or technical goal for proposed research): See http://www.meteo.psu.edu/~verlinde/mpace.html*.

This experiment provided critical measurements to make progress in the development of retrieval algorithms for application at the North Slope. Moreover, it provided the physical understanding necessary to parameterize arctic cloud processes.

*Link is currently unavailable.

Related Publications


Solomon A, G de Boer, J Creamean, A McComiskey, M Shupe, M Maahn, and C Cox. 2018. "The relative impact of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particle concentrations on phase partitioning in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus clouds." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(23), 10.5194/acp-18-17047-2018.


Li Z, K Xu, and A Cheng. 2017. "The Response of Simulated Arctic Mixed-Phase Stratocumulus to Sea Ice Cover Variability in the Absence of Large-Scale Advection." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(22), 10.1002/2017JD027086.

Heymsfield A, M Kramer, NB Wood, A Gettelman, and PR Field. 2017. "Dependence of the Ice Water Content and Snowfall Rate on Temperature, Globally: Comparison of In-Situ Observations, Satellite Active Remote Sensing Retrievals and Global Climate Model Simulations." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 56(1), 10.1175/jamc-d-16-0230.1.


Fridlind AM, R Atlas, B van Diedenhoven, J Um, GM McFarquhar, AS Ackerman, EJ Moyer, and RP Lawson. 2016. "Derivation of physical and optical properties of mid-latitude cirrus ice crystals for a size-resolved cloud microphysics model." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16(11), 10.5194/acp-16-7251-2016.
Research Highlight


Kaul CM, J Teixeira, and K Sizilo. 2015. "Sensitivities in Large-Eddy Simulations of Mixed-Phase Arctic Stratocumulus Clouds Using a Simple Microphysics Approach*." Monthly Weather Review, 143(11), 10.1175/mwr-d-14-00319.1.

Lebassi-Habtezion B and PM Caldwell. 2015. "Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5." Geoscientific Model Development, 8(3), 10.5194/gmd-8-817-2015.


Forbes RM and M Ahlgrimm. 2014. "On the Representation of High-Latitude Boundary Layer Mixed-Phase Cloud in the ECMWF Global Model." Monthly Weather Review, 142(9), 10.1175/mwr-d-13-00325.1.

Paukert M and C Hoose. 2014. "Modeling immersion freezing with aerosol-dependent prognostic ice nuclei in Arctic mixed-phase clouds." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119(14), 10.1002/2014jd021917.

Schmid B, JM Tomlinson, JM Hubbe, JM Comstock, F Mei, D Chand, MS Pekour, CD Kluzek, E Andrews, SC Biraud, and GM McFarquhar. 2014. "The DOE ARM Aerial Facility." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95(5), 10.1175/bams-d-13-00040.1.

Jouan C, J Pelon, E Girard, G Ancellet, JP Blanchet, and J Delanoe. 2014. "On the relationship between Arctic ice clouds and polluted air masses over the North Slope of Alaska in April 2008." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14(3), 10.5194/acp-14-1205-2014.

View All Related Publications

Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Chad Bahrmann METAR Order Data
Maria Cadeddu Microwave Radiometer Profiler Order Data
Paul DeMott CFDC Order Data
Andrew Heymsfield Citation Order Data
Greg Kok Citation Order Data
Chuck Long Surface Flux Analysis Order Data
James Mather PARSL Order Data
Greg McFarquhar Microphysical Cloud Properties-McFarquhar-Zhang Order Data
Patrick Minnis visst Order Data
Victor Morris Total Sky Imager Order Data
Walter Oechel ameriflux-ecor Order Data
Michael Poellot Citation Order Data
Tim Tooman Proteus Order Data
David Turner AERI Order Data
David Turner MWR Retrievals Order Data
Johannes Verlinde Balloon-borne sounding system(s) Order Data
Shaocheng Xie Constrained Variational Objective Analysis Data Order Data
Shaocheng Xie Eta Model Runs Order Data
Shaocheng Xie European Centre for Medium Range Forecasting Order Data
Bernard Zak Tether Sonde Order Data