ebbr: Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station

The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-minute estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the surface. The EBBR calculates flux estimates from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps reduce errors from instrument offset drift.



  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Related Publications


Torn MS, L Kueppers, SC Biraud, and DP Billesbach. 2018. Portable Flux Tower Deployments Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-18-022.

Cook DR. 2018. Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) Instrument Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-037.

Ma H, S Klein, S Xie, C Zhang, S Tang, Q Tang, C Morcrette, K Van Weverberg, J Petch, M Ahlgrimm, L Berg, F Cheruy, J Cole, R Forbes, W Gustafson, M Huang, Y Liu, W Merryfield, Y Qian, R Roehrig, and Y Wang. 2018. "CAUSES: On the Role of Surface Energy Budget Errors to the Warm Surface Air Temperature Error Over the Central United States." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(5), 10.1002/2017JD027194.

Turner D, V Wulfmeyer, A Behrendt, T Bonin, A Choukulkar, R Newsom, W Brewer, and D Cook. 2018. "Response of the Land-Atmosphere System Over North-Central Oklahoma During the 2017 Eclipse." Geophysical Research Letters, 45(3), 10.1002/2017GL076908.


Lu Y, S Steele-Dunne, L Farhadi, and N van de Giesen. 2017. "Mapping Surface Heat Fluxes by Assimilating SMAP Soil Moisture and GOES Land Surface Temperature Data." Water Resources Research, 53(12), 10.1002/2017WR021415.

Phillips T, S Klein, H Ma, Q Tang, S Xie, I Williams, J Santanello, D Cook, and M Torn. 2017. "Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Climate Model Simulations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling on the U.S. Southern Great Plains." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(21), doi:10.1002/2017JD027141.

Zhang C and S Xie. 2017. ARM Data-Oriented Metrics and Diagnostics Package for Climate Model Evaluation Value-Added Product. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-202.

Bagley J, L Kueppers, D Billesbach, I Williams, S Biraud, and M Torn. 2017. "The influence of land cover on surface energy partitioning and evaporative fraction regimes in the US Southern Great Plains." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(11), 10.1002/2017JD026740.

Zhu W, A Lv, S Jia, and J Yan. 2017. "A New Contextual Parameterization of Evaporative Fraction to Reduce the Reliance of the Ts − VI Triangle Method on the Dry Edge." Remote Sensing, 9(1), 10.3390/rs9010026.


Ma H, C Chuang, SA Klein, M Lo, Y Zhang, S Xie, X Zheng, P Ma, Y Zhang, and TJ Phillips. 2015. "An improved hindcast approach for evaluation and diagnosis of physical processes in global climate models." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 7(4), 10.1002/2015ms000490.

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