Ground-based Instruments

Category Measurement Instrument Sponsor
Radars Precipitation estimation, hydrometeor classification, 3D wind fields X-band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (XSAPR), 9.6 GHz frequency, dual polarization DOE ARM Facility
Precipitation estimation, hydrometeor classification, 3D wind fields C-band ARM Precipitation Radar (CSAPR), 5.6 GHz frequency, dual polarization DOE ARM Facility
Simultaneous observations of clouds and precipitation over a 15-20 km range, hydrometeor classification, 3D wind fields ARM Dual-Wavelength (Ka/W) Scanning Cloud Radar, dual radar frequency at 94 and 35 GHz, with polarization DOE ARM Facility
Cloud boundaries in the vertical column, along with radar reflectivity factor (dBZ), mean Doppler velocity, and spectral width Ka ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR), 35 GHz frequency DOE ARM Facility
Precipitation estimation, microphysics and insight Ka/Ku band Deployable Dual-Polarimetric Doppler Scanning Radar (D3R) NASA
Light to heavy precipitation in liquid, mixed, and ice phase environments S-Band Transportable Dual-Polarimetric Radar (NPOL), 2.7-2.9 GHz frequency, dual polarization NASA
Mean vertical velocity and hydrometeor characteristics 915 MHz Wind Profilers DOE ARM Facility
Precipitating column and retrieving vertical air motion and raindrop size distribution from near the surface to just below the freezing S-Band/UHF Profiler, 2835 MHz frequency for S-band and 449 MHz for UHF NOAA-ESRL
Vertical velocity Profiler Network 404-449 MHz Wind Profilers NOAA
Large-scale precipitation, hydrometeor classification WSR-88Ds NOAA-NWS
Atmospheric moisture and temperature, longwave spectral brightness temperature and radiance Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) IR NOAA
Lidars Boundary-layer winds in clear air Doppler Lidar DOE ARM Facility
Cloud base Micropulse Lidar DOE ARM Facility
Vertical profiles of water vapor Raman Lidar DOE ARM Facility
Atmospheric State Liquid water path and integrated water vapor content Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel DOE ARM Facility
Temperature, pressue, relative humidity, horizontal wind Sondes DOE ARM Facility
Visible total sky cover Total Sky Imager DOE ARM Facility
Surface Meterology Precipitation size distribution Disdrometers DOE ARM Facility/NASA
Particle size and concentration measurements for particles of 0.3-8 mm in diameter (bin resolution of 0.25 mm), axis ratio distribution, and fall-velocity information 2D Video Disdrometer DOE ARM Facility/NASA
Direct, rainfall amount; indirect, rain rate Rain Gauges NASA
Surface broadband radiative fluxes, surface latent and sensible heat fluxes, soil moisture and temperature Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station (EBBR) DOE ARM Facility

NASA ER-2 Payload

Category Measurement Instrument Sponsor
Radiometer Precipitation estimation, brightness temperature (10.7, 19.35, 37.1, 85.5 GHz) Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) NASA
Precipitation estimation, brightness temperature (37, 89, 165.5, 183.3 GHz) Conical Scanning Millimeter-wave Imaging Radiometer (CoSMIR) NASA
Radar Precipitation profiling, hydrometeor classification, 2D wind fields High Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Radar (HIWRAP) Ka-Ku band radar NASA

University of North Dakota (UND) Citation Payload

Category Measurement Instrument Sponsor
Microphysics Cloud liquid water King Hot Wire Probe NASA
Cloud particle spectra PMS 2D-C NASA
Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP) NASA
Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) NASA
Cloud Particle Imager (CPI) NASA
Precipitation particle spectra High Volume Precipitation Spectrometer (HVPS) NASA
Total water content Nevzorov Probe NASA
Aerosol Condensation nuclei CN counter (10 nm cut) DOE ARM Aerial Facility
Aerosol size distribution (60 nm – 1 micron) Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol  Spectrometer DOE ARM Aerial Facility

External Data Sets and Value-added Products