Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E): Multi-Frequency Profilers

22 April 2011 - 6 June 2011

Lead Scientist: Christopher Williams

Observatory: sgp, sgp

The scientific focus was to study the vertical structure of precipitation in a vertical column over the SGP Central Facility. These multi-frequency profiler observations enabled directly measuring the vertical air motion and retrieving the raindrop size distributions from near the surface to just under the freezing level. These profilers were deployed during MC3E and supported the scientific objectives of that field campaign.


Walter Petersen


  • Parent Campaign
  • Sibling Campaign


Jensen MP, WA Petersen, A Bansemer, N Bharadwaj, LD Carey, DJ Cecil, SM Collis, AD Del Genio, B Dolan, J Gerlach, SE Giangrande, G Heymsfield, P Kollias, TJ Lang, SW Nesbitt, A Neumann, M Poellot, SA Rutledge, M Schwaller, A Tokay, CR Williams, DB Wolff, S Xie, and EJ Zipser. 2016. "The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E)." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 97(9), 10.1175/bams-d-14-00228.1.
Research Highlight

Wang J, X Dong, B Xi, and H Andrew. 2016. "Investigation of liquid cloud microphysical properties of deep convective systems: 1. Parameterization of rain drop size distribution and its application for stratiform rain estimate." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121(18), 10.1002/2016jd024941.
Research Highlight

van Lier-Walqui M, AM Fridlind, AS Ackerman, S Collis, J Helmus, DR MacGorman, K North, P Kollias, and DJ Posselt. 2016. "On polarimetric radar signatures of deep convection for model evaluation: Columns of specific differential phase observed during MC3E." Monthly Weather Review, 144(2), 10.1175/mwr-d-15-0100.1.
Research Highlight


D’Adderio LP, F Porcù, and A Tokay. 2015. "Identification and Analysis of Collisional Breakup in Natural Rain." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 72(9), 10.1175/jas-d-14-0304.1.


Lang SE, W Tao, J Chern, D Wu, and X Li. 2014. "Benefits of a Fourth Ice Class in the Simulated Radar Reflectivities of Convective Systems Using a Bulk Microphysics Scheme." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 71(10), 10.1175/jas-d-13-0330.1.

Battaglia A, S Tanelli, GM Heymsfield, and L Tian. 2014. "The Dual Wavelength Ratio Knee: A Signature of Multiple Scattering in Airborne Ku–Ka Observations." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 53(7), 10.1175/jamc-d-13-0341.1.


McLinden ML, J Carswell, L Li, G Heymsfield, A Emory, JI Cervantes, and L Tian. 2013. "Utilizing Versatile Transmission Waveforms to Mitigate Pulse-Compression Range Sidelobes With the HIWRAP Radar." IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 10(6), 10.1109/lgrs.2013.2241729.

Matsui T, T Iguchi, X Li, M Han, W Tao, W Peterson, T L'Ecuyer, R Meneghini, W Olson, CD Kummerow, AY Hou, MR Schwaller, EF Stocker, and J Kwiatkowski. 2013. "GPM Satellite Simulator over Ground Validation Sites." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94(11), 10.1175/bams-d-12-00160.1.

Coniglio MC, J Correia, PT Marsh, and F Kong. 2013. "Verification of Convection-Allowing WRF Model Forecasts of the Planetary Boundary Layer Using Sounding Observations." Weather and Forecasting, 28(3), 10.1175/waf-d-12-00103.1.

View All Related Publications

Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Christopher Williams 449 MHz Profiler Order Data
Christopher Williams S-band Radar Order Data
Christopher Williams Surface Meteorology- T0 Site Order Data
Christopher Williams Vertical Air Motion Order Data
Christopher Williams disdro Order Data