International H2O Project (IHOP)

13 May 2002 - 25 June 2002

Lead Scientist: Randy Peppler

Observatory: sgp, sgp

The International H2O Project (IHOP) sought to map out the 4-D distribution of water vapor over the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The project occured over the SGP site from May 13 to June 25, 2002. The project was focused on precipitating convective clouds with four overlapping and co-coordinated research components aimed at the following:

  1. improving the understanding and prediction of convective initiation,
  2. improving the measurement and treatment of surface and boundary layer processes as they relate to the formation and evolution of convective clouds,
  3. determining the impact of improved characterization of the water vapor field on quantitative precipitation forecasts, and
  4. providing guidance on the future optimal mix of water vapor measurement and assimilation strategies.

The project included additional surface-based measurements over southern Kansas and Oklahoma, targeted mobile facilities, and up to six research aircraft each equipped with advanced water-vapor measurement systems. The project had interagency approval under the U.S. Weather Research Program and included investigators from DOE, NASA, NCAR, NOAA, Office of Army Research, France, Germany, Canada and the U.S. university community. The project was also considered a pre-TIMEX field initiative (the NOAA/NSSL Thunderstorm Initiation Mobile Experiment Campaign).



Hourdin F, D Williamson, C Rio, F Couvreux, R Roehrig, N Villefranque, I Musat, L Fairhead, F Diallo, and V Volodina. 2021. "Processā€Based Climate Model Development Harnessing Machine Learning: II. Model Calibration From Single Column to Global." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 13(6), e2020MS002225, 10.1029/2020MS002225.


Parsons D, K Haghi, K Halbert, B Elmer, and J Wang. 2019. "The Potential Role of Atmospheric Bores and Gravity Waves in the Initiation and Maintenance of Nocturnal Convection over the Southern Great Plains." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 76(1), 10.1175/JAS-D-17-0172.1.


Haghi K, D Parsons, and A Shapiro. 2017. "Bores Observed during IHOP_2002: The Relationship of Bores to the Nocturnal Environment." Monthly Weather Review, 145(10), 10.1175/MWR-D-16-0415.1.

Blumberg WG, TJ Wagner, DD Turner, and J Correia. 2017. "Quantifying the Accuracy and Uncertainty of Diurnal Thermodynamic Profiles and Convection Indices Derived from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 56(10), 10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0036.1.


Kumar A, F Chen, M Barlage, MB Ek, and D Niyogi. 2014. "Assessing Impacts of Integrating MODIS Vegetation Data in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Coupled to Two Different Canopy-Resistance Approaches." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 53(6), 10.1175/jamc-d-13-0247.1.


Charusombat U, D Niyogi, S Garrigues, A Olioso, O Marloie, M Barlage, F Chen, M Ek, X Wang, and Z Wu. 2012. "Noah-GEM and Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) based downscaling of global reanalysis surface fields: Evaluations using observations from a CarboEurope agricultural site." Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 86, 10.1016/j.compag.2011.12.001.


Zhang L and Z Pu. 2011. "Four-dimensional assimilation of multi-time wind profiles over a single station and numerical simulation of a mesoscale convective system observed during IHOP_2002." Monthly Weather Review, 139(11), 3569, 10.1175/2011mwr3569.1.


Kumar A, F Chen, D Niyogi, JG Alfieri, M Ek, and K Mitchell. 2010. "Evaluation of a Photosynthesis-Based Canopy Resistance Formulation in the Noah Land-Surface Model." Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 138(2), 10.1007/s10546-010-9559-z.

Reen BP and DR Stauffer. 2010. "Data Assimilation Strategies in the Planetary Boundary Layer." Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 137(2), 10.1007/s10546-010-9528-6.


Champollion C, C Flamant, O Bock, F Masson, DD Turner, and T Weckworth. 2009. "Mesoscale GPS tomography applied to the 12 June 2002 convective initiation event of IHOP_2002." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 135(640), 10.1002/qj.386.

View All Related Publications

Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Janet Machol miniature water vapor DIAL Order Data
David Turner Scanning Raman Lidar Order Data