Water Vapor IOP

18 September 2000 - 8 October 2000

Lead Scientist: Henry Revercomb

Observatory: sgp, sgp

Scientific hypothesis: 1. Microwave radiometer (MWR) observations of the 22 GHz water vapor line can accurately constrain the total column amount of water vapor (assuming a calibration accuracy of 0.5 degC or better, which translates into 0.35 mm PWV).

  1. Continuous profiling by Raman lidar provides a stable reference for handling sampling problems and observes a fixed column directly above the site only requiring a single height- independent calibration factor.

  2. Agreement between the salt-bath calibrated in-situ probes, chilled mirror hygrometers, DIAL, and MWR can be achieved. All of these techniques are considered capable of measuring water vapor with a high absolute accuracy. More details are given in the Science Plan.

Approach to test hypothesis: Operate the CART, ETL CSR, and JPL J-unit MWRs in continuous TIP-cal mode so that their calibration can constantly be monitored. Periodically, use a LN2 blackbody target on the MWRs to verify their calibration. Utilize the scanning capability of the NASA/GSFC Raman lidar to investigate the horizontal homogeneity of the sky during several periods when the MWRs are collecting TIP-cal data.

Operate the MPI DIAL, comparing it to the MWR-calibrated CART Raman lidar and tower-calibrated NASA/GSFC Raman lidar.

Launch dual-sondes (with the new RS-90s) to continue the characterization of the radiosondes performed during the first two WVIOPs.

GPS measurements at the CF and/or Lamont to provide a data set which can be compared and evaluated against the other measures of PWV.

Chilled mirrors at the surface and 60-m tower levels to demonstrate repeatability of the agreement between the chilled mirrors and the Vaisala in-situ probes at those levels shown in the 1997 WVIOP. More details are given in the Science Plan.



Alexandrov MD, B Schmid, DD Turner, B Cairns, V Oinas, AA Lacis, SI Gutman, ER Westwater, A Smirnov, and J Eilers. 2009. "Columnar water vapor retrievals from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer data." Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 114(D2), D02306, 10.1029/2008jd010543.


Tobin D, H Revercomb, R Knuteson, B Lesht, L Strow, S Hannon, W Feltz, L Moy, E Fetzer, and T Cress. 2006. "Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site atmospheric state best estimates for Atmospheric Infrared Sounder temperature and water vapor retrieval validation." Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 111(D9), D09S14, 10.1029/2005JD006103.


Turner DD, DC Tobin, SA Clough, PD Brown, RG Ellingson, EJ Mlawer, RO Knuteson, HE Revercomb, TR Shippert, WL Smith, and MW Shephard. 2004. "The QME AERI LBLRTM: A Closure Experiment for Downwelling High Spectral Resolution Infrared Radiance." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 61(22), 10.1175/jas3300.1.

Min Q, P Minnis, and MN Khaiyer. 2004. "Comparison of cirrus optical depths derived from GOES 8 and surface measurements." Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 109(D15), D20119, 10.1029/2003jd004390.

Soden BJ, DD Turner, BM Lesht, and LM Milosevich. 2004. "An analysis of satellite, radiosonde, and lidar observations of upper tropospheric water vapor from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 109(D4), D04105, 10.1029/2003jd003828.


Cimini D, E Westwater, Y Han, and S Keihm. 2003. "Accuracy of ground-based microwave radiometer and balloon-borne measurements during the WVIOP2000 field experiment." IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 41(11), 10.1109/tgrs.2003.815673.

Heymsfield AJ. 2003. "Properties of Tropical and Midlatitude Ice Cloud Particle Ensembles. Part II: Applications for Mesoscale and Climate Models." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 60(21), 10.1175/1520-0469(2003)060<2592:potami>2.0.co;2.

Revercomb HE, DD Turner, DC Tobin, RO Knuteson, WF Feltz, J Barnard, J Bösenberg, S Clough, D Cook, R Ferrare, J Goldsmith, S Gutman, R Halthore, B Lesht, J Liljegren, H Linné, J Michalsky, V Morris, W Porch, S Richardson, B Schmid, M Splitt, TV Hove, E Westwater, and D Whiteman. 2003. "The ARM Program's Water Vapor Intensive Observation Periods: Overview, Initial Accomplishments, and Future Challenges." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 84(2), 10.1175/bams-84-2-217.

Cimini D, ER Westwater, S Keihm, Y Han, F Marzano, and P Ciotti. 2003. Emperical evaluation of four microwave radiative forward models based on ground-based radiometer data near 20 and 30 GHz. In Proceedings of the 13th Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Science Team Meeting, Ed. by D. Carrothrs, Richland, WA: Department of Energy.


Cimini D, ER Westwater, Y Han, and S Keihm. 2002. Ground-Based Microwave Radiometer Measurements and Radiosonde Comparisons during the WVIOP2000 Field Experiment. In Proceedings of the Twelfth ARM Science Team Meeting, Ed. by D. Carrothers, Richland, WA: U.S. Department of Energy.

View All Related Publications

Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Jens Boesenberg DIAL Lidar Order Data
Domenico Cimini Microwave Radiometer Order Data
David Cook CART Met Order Data
Connor Flynn AERI Retrieved Thermodynamic Profiles and Cloud Properties Order Data
Frank Gallagher Dataplane Order Data
Seth Gutman GPS Order Data
Stephen Keihm JPL MWR Order Data
Barry Lesht BBSS Order Data
Joseph Michalsky MFRSR Order Data
Victor Morris CART MWR Order Data
Henry Revercomb AERIBAGO Order Data
Scott Richardson CM RH Order Data
Beat Schmid Sunphotometer Order Data
David Turner Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS) Order Data
Ed Westwater ETL MWR Order Data
David Whiteman GSFC RL Order Data