26 June 2002 - 1 August 2002

Lead Scientist: James Mather

Observatory: osc, osc

From July 3-29, 2002 ARM took part in CRYSTAL-FACE (The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers -Florida Area Cirrus Experiment). CRYSTAL-FACE was organized by NASA but many agencies and institutions also played roles. The purpose of CRYSTAL-FACE was to study tropical convection and cirrus. Ultimately, there was great interest in carrying out such an experiment in the Tropical Western Pacific and it was likely that a future phase of CRYSTAL would be held in that region. Florida was chosen for the initial phase of CRYSTAL because it offered frequent deep convection and the logistics for holding an experiment there were much simpler than in the equatorial Pacific.

Much of the emphasis of CRYSTAL-FACE was on the aircraft component. There were six aircraft that were all based in Key West Florida and flew missions throughout the month over south Florida and on several occasions over the Carribean to study convection in the deep tropics. The aircraft included (in approximate order of maximum ceiling): the Twin Otter, Citation, P3, WB-57, Proteus, and ER-2. The experiment also included extensive satellite and modelling components as well as two fully instrumented ground sites.

ARM participated primarily by sponsoring the deployment of PARSL (The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Atmospheric Remote Sensing Laboratory) in southwest Florida. PARSL is a mobile suite of instruments designed to measure the surface radiation budget and the atmospheric state and closely matches the instrumenation found at an ARM site. PARSL instruments included broad and narrowband radiometers, a sky imager, two cloud radars (94 and 35 GHz), a cloud lidar, surface meteorology sensors and a balloon borne sounding system.



Heymsfield A, A Bansemer, A Theis, and C Schmitt. 2021. "Survival of Snow in the Melting Layer: Relative Humidity Influence." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 78(6), 10.1175/JAS-D-20-0353.1.


Lawson R, S Woods, E Jensen, E Erfani, C Gurganus, M Gallagher, P Connolly, J Whiteway, A Baran, P May, A Heymsfield, C Schmitt, G McFarquhar, J Um, A Protat, M Bailey, S Lance, A Muehlbauer, J Stith, A Korolev, O Toon, and M Krämer. 2019. "A Review of Ice Particle Shapes in Cirrus formed In Situ and in Anvils." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124, 10.1029/2018JD030122.

Schmitt C, K Sulia, Z Lebo, A Heymsfield, V Przybyo, and P Connolly. 2019. "The fall speed variability of similarly sized ice particle aggregates." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 58(8), doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-18-0291.1.


Matrosov S and A Heymsfield. 2017. "Empirical Relations between Size Parameters of Ice Hydrometeor Populations and Radar Reflectivity." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 56(9), 10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0076.1.

Marinescu P, S van den Heever, S Saleeby, S Kreidenweis, and P DeMott. 2017. "The Microphysical Roles of Lower versus Middle Tropospheric Aerosol Particles in Mature-Stage MCS Precipitation." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 74(11), doi:10.1175/JAS-D-16-0361.1.

Heymsfield A, M Kramer, NB Wood, A Gettelman, and PR Field. 2017. "Dependence of the Ice Water Content and Snowfall Rate on Temperature, Globally: Comparison of In-Situ Observations, Satellite Active Remote Sensing Retrievals and Global Climate Model Simulations." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 56(1), 10.1175/jamc-d-16-0230.1.


Tao WK and X Li. 2016. "The relationship between latent heating, vertical velocity, and precipitation processes: The impact of aerosols on precipitation in organized deep convective systems." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121(11), 10.1002/2015jd024267.


Heymsfield AJ, A Bansemer, MR Poellot, and N Wood. 2015. "Observations of Ice Microphysics through the Melting Layer." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 72(8), 10.1175/jas-d-14-0363.1.


Fontaine E, A Schwarzenboeck, J Delanoë, W Wobrock, D Leroy, R Dupuy, C Gourbeyre, and A Protat. 2014. "Constraining mass-diameter relations from hydrometeor images and cloud radar reflectivities in tropical continental and oceanic convective anvils." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14(20), 10.5194/acp-14-11367-2014.

Muhlbauer A, TP Ackerman, JC Comstock, GS Diskin, SM Evans, RP Lawson, and RT Marchand. 2014. "Impact of large-scale dynamics on the microphysical properties of midlatitude cirrus." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119(7), 10.1002/2013jd020035.

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Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Bruce Albrecht Surface Meteorology Order Data
Bruce Albrecht ceil Order Data
Bruce Albrecht radar94 Order Data
Daniel DeSlover Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Order Data
Daniel DeSlover aeriplus Order Data
Daniel DeSlover vsurf Order Data
Paul Kucera npol Order Data
James Mather parsl Order Data
Kenneth Sassen Shortwave Radiation Order Data
Kenneth Sassen lidar Order Data
Timothy Schneider noaapco Order Data
Si-Chee Tsay Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Order Data
Christopher Williams disdro Order Data
Christopher Williams radar2835 Order Data