Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP)

1 July 2012 - 30 June 2013

Lead Scientist: Larry Berg

Observatory: AMF, PVC

There remain many key knowledge gaps despite advances in the scientific understanding of how aerosols and clouds evolve and affect climate. Many climatically important processes depend on particles that undergo continuous changes within a size range spanning a few nanometers to a few microns, and with compositions that consist of a variety of carbonaceous materials, soluble inorganic salts and acids and insoluble mineral dust. Primary particles, which are externally-mixed when emitted, are subject to coagulation and chemical changes associated with the condensation of semi-volatile gases to their surface resulting in a spectrum of compositions or mixing-states with a range of climate-affecting optical and hygroscopic properties. The numerical treatments of aerosol transformation and cloud-aerosol interactions are highly simplified in large-scale models, contributing to the uncertainties associated with aerosol direct and indirect forcing in climate models used to determine safe levels of greenhouse gases for the Earth system.

This campaign was designed to provide a detailed set of observations with which to:

  • perform radiative and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) closure studies
  • evaluate a new retrieval algorithm for aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the presence of clouds using passive remote sensing
  • extend a previously developed technique to investigate aerosol indirect effects, and
  • evaluate the performance of a detailed regional-scale model and a more parameterized global-scale model in simulating particle activation and AOD associated with the aging of anthropogenic aerosols.

To meet these science objectives, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and the Mobile Aerosol Observing System (MAOS) was deployed on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for a 12-month period starting in the summer of 2012 in order to quantify aerosol properties, radiation, and cloud characteristics at a location subject to both clear and cloudy conditions, and clean and polluted conditions. These observations were supplemented by two aircraft intensive observational periods, one in the summer and a second in the winter. Each intensive observational period required two aircraft.

The ARM Mobile Facility was deployed on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for 12 months starting in the summer of 2012.
The ARM Mobile Facility was deployed on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for 12 months starting in the summer of 2012.


Richard Ferrare
Chris Hostetler


Kassianov E, M Pekour, L Berg, G Chirokova, C Flynn, A Hallar, A Setyan, Q Zhang, J Uin, and J Fast. 2020. "Aerosol Total Volume Estimation from Wavelength‐ and Size‐resolved Scattering Coefficient Data: A New Method." Earth and Space Science, , 10.1029/2019EA000863. ONLINE.

Mei F, D Dexheimer, J Fast, M Diao, B Geerts, A Bucholtz, L Riihimaki, C Flynn, T Thornberry, T Campos, S Springston, C Kuang, J Tomlinson, and B Schmid. 2020. ARM Aerial Instrument Workshop Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-20-010.

Newsom RK and R Krishnamurthy. 2020. Doppler Lidar (DL) Instrument Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-101.

Goss HB, KS Dorsey, CB Ireland, MR Wasem, RA Stafford, and R Jundt. 2020. 2019 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Annual Report. Ed. by Kathryn Dorsey, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-19-032.

Muradyan P and R Coulter. 2020. Radar Wind Profiler (RWP) and Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) Instrument Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-044.


Burgos M, E Andrews, G Titos, L Alados-Arboledas, U Baltensperger, D Day, A Jefferson, N Kalivitis, N Mihalopoulos, J Sherman, J Sun, E Weingartner, and P Zieger. 2019. "A global view on the effect of water uptake on aerosol particle light scattering." Scientific Data, 6(1), 10.1038/s41597-019-0158-7.


Stamnes S, C Hostetler, R Ferrare, S Burton, X Liu, J Hair, Y Hu, A Wasilewski, W Martin, B van Diedenhoven, J Chowdhary, I Cetinić, L Berg, K Stamnes, and B Cairns. 2018. "Simultaneous polarimeter retrievals of microphysical aerosol and ocean color parameters from the “MAPP” algorithm with comparison to high-spectral-resolution lidar aerosol and ocean products." Applied Optics, 57(10), 10.1364/AO.57.002394.


Niple ER, HE Scott, JA Conant, SH Jones, FJ Iannarilli, and WE Pereira. 2016. "Application of oxygen A-band equivalent width to disambiguate downwelling radiances for cloud optical depth measurement." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 9(9), amt-9-4167-2016, 10.5194/amt-9-4167-2016.

Miller MA, K Nitschke, TP Ackerman, WR Ferrell, N Hickmon, and M Ivey. 2016. The ARM Mobile Facilities. In Meteorological Monographs vol.57, pp. 1-15. Washington, D.C.: American Meteorological Society.

Cziczo D. 2016. Understanding the Effect of Aerosol Properties on Cloud Droplet Formation during TCAP Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, DOE ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-15-055.

View All Related Publications

Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Brian Cairns Research Scanning Polarimeter- B200 Aircraft Order Data
Duli Chand Nephelometer - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Duli Chand Particle Soot Absorption Photometer - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Duli Chand f_RH - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Jennifer Comstock Altitude Data - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Jennifer Comstock Cloud Aerosol Precip Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Jennifer Comstock Cloud Droplet Probe - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Jennifer Comstock Cloud Imaging Probe - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Jennifer Comstock Water Content - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Daniel Cziczo Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Order Data
Daniel Cziczo Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter Order Data
Chris Hostetler High Spectral Resolution Lidar-2 - G1 Aircraft Order Data
John Hubbe Meteorology/State/Position Parameters- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Chuck Long Radiometers - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Joseph Michalsky MFRSR Order Data
Mikhail Pekour Aerodynamic Particle Sizer Order Data
Mikhail Pekour Counterflow Virtual Impactor Inlet - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Phil Russell 4STAR - Aerosol Optical Depth Order Data
Phil Russell 4STAR - Columnar Water Vapor - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Herman Scott Three Waveband Spectrally-agile Technique Sensor Order Data
Arthur Sedlacek Aethalometer Order Data
Arthur Sedlacek Single Particle Soot Photometer Order Data
Arthur Sedlacek Single Particle Soot Photometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Stephen Springston Carbon Monoxide - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Stephen Springston Meteorological Data Order Data
Stephen Springston Particle Soot Absorption Photometer Order Data
Stephen Springston Trace Gases Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Condensation Particle Counters - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Dual Column Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Video - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Rainer Volkamer University of Colorado Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy Order Data
Thomas Watson Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS) Order Data
Thomas Watson Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS)- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Alla Zelenyuk-Imre Mini Single Particle Mass Spectrometer - G1 Aircraft Order Data

PVC Data Sources

Name Full Name Browse Data
ACSM Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor Browse Data
AERI Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Browse Data
AERINF AERI Noise Filtered Browse Data
AETH Aethalometer Browse Data
AIP Aerosol Intensive Properties Browse Data
AOS Aerosol Observing System Browse Data
AOSCCNAVG Aerosol Observing System (AOS): cloud condensation nuclei data, averaged Browse Data
AOSMET Meteorological Measurements associated with the Aerosol Observing System Browse Data
CAMSITE camera that monitors a site area Browse Data
CCN Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter Browse Data
CEIL Ceilometer Browse Data
CEILPBLHT Boundary-layer height data with CEIL Browse Data
CLAP Continuous Light Absorption Photometer Browse Data
CO-ANALYZER Carbon Monoxide Analyzer Browse Data
CPC Condensation Particle Counter Browse Data
CSPHOT Cimel Sunphotometer Browse Data
DL Doppler Lidar Browse Data
DLPROF Doppler Lidar Profiles Browse Data
ECMWFDIAG European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses Browse Data
ECOR Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Browse Data
GNDRAD Ground Radiometers on Stand for Upwelling Radiation Browse Data
HTDMA Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Browse Data
IRT Infrared Thermometer Browse Data
KASACR Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data
MET Surface Meteorological Instrumentation Browse Data
MFR Multifilter Radiometer Browse Data
MFRSR Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Browse Data
MFRSRCLDOD Cloud Optical Properties from MFRSR Using Min Algorithm Browse Data
MPL Micropulse Lidar Browse Data
MPLCMASK Cloud mask from Micropulse Lidar Browse Data
MWR Microwave Radiometer Browse Data
MWR3C Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel Browse Data
MWRHF Microwave Radiometer - High Frequency Browse Data
MWRP Microwave Radiometer Profiler Browse Data
MWRRET MWR Retrievals Browse Data
NEPHELOMETER Nephelometer Browse Data
NFOV Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer Browse Data
NOX Nitrogen Oxides Monitor Browse Data
OZONE Ozone Monitor Browse Data
PASS Photoacoustic Soot Spectrometer Browse Data
PSAP Particle Soot Absorption Photometer Browse Data
QCRAD Data Quality Assessment for ARM Radiation Data Browse Data
RWP Radar Wind Profiler Browse Data
SACRADVVAD SACR Advance Velocity Azimuth Display Browse Data
SACRCOR Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Corrections Browse Data
SASHE Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric Browse Data
SASZE Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith Browse Data
SEBS Surface Energy Balance System Browse Data
SKYRAD Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation Browse Data
SMPS Scanning mobility particle sizer Browse Data
SO2 Sulfur Dioxide Monitor Browse Data
SODAR Mini Sound Detection and Ranging Browse Data
SONDE Balloon-Borne Sounding System Browse Data
SONDEADJUST Sonde Adjust Browse Data
TSI Total Sky Imager Browse Data
UHSAS Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Browse Data
WACR W-Band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data
WACRARSCL W-band Cloud Radar Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Browse Data
WSACR W-band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data