Calwater Field Campaign

1 February 2011 - 7 March 2011

Lead Scientist: Kimberly Prather

Observatory: aaf, mcc

The goal of this project involved determining how aerosols impact clouds and precipitation patterns in California. Specifically flights were conducted through precipitating and non-precipitating clouds to determine whether there were chemical or physical differences in the cloud nuclei forming the clouds. The sources of the key cloud seeds were determined using single particle mass spectrometry. Cloud physics and chemistry were probed in addition to high level meteorological data. Met data were acquired during flights as well as at several sampling ground level sampling sites. The goal was to unravel the key parameters leading to high levels of rain and snow in California versus sustained cloud cover with very little precipitation.



Cornwell G, C Sultana, M Petters, H Al-Mashat, N Rothfuss, O Möhler, P DeMott, A Martin, and K Prather. 2022. "Discrimination between individual dust and bioparticles using aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry." Aerosol Science and Technology, , 10.1080/02786826.2022.2055994.


Neiman P, N Gaggini, C Fairall, J Aikins, J Spackman, L Leung, J Fan, J Hardin, N Nalli, and A White. 2017. "An Analysis of Coordinated Observations from NOAA's Ronald Brown Ship and G-IV Aircraft in a Landfalling Atmospheric River over the North Pacific during CalWater-2015." Monthly Weather Review, 145(9), 10.1175/MWR-D-17-0055.1.

Cordeira J, F Ralph, A Martin, N Gaggini, J Spackman, P Neiman, J Rutz, and R Pierce. 2017. "Forecasting Atmospheric Rivers during CalWater 2015." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 98(3), 10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00245.1.

Fan J, L Leung, D Rosenfeld, and P DeMott. 2017. "Effects of cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles on precipitation processes and supercooled liquid in mixed-phase orographic clouds." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17(2), 10.5194/acp-17-1017-2017.


Nalli N, C Barnet, T Reale, Q Liu, V Morris, J Spackman, E Joseph, C Tan, B Sun, F Tilley, L Leung, and D Wolfe. 2016. "Satellite Sounder Observations of Contrasting Tropospheric Moisture Transport Regimes: Saharan Air Layers, Hadley Cells, and Atmospheric Rivers." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17(12), 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0163.1.

Creamean JM, AB White, P Minnis, R Palikonda, DA Spangenberg, and KA Prather. 2016. "The relationships between insoluble precipitation residues, clouds, and precipitation over California’s southern Sierra Nevada during winter storms." Atmospheric Environment, 140, 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.016.


Creamean JM, AP Ault, AB White, PJ Nieman, FM Ralph, P Minnis, and KA Prather. 2015. "Impact of interannual variations in sources of insoluble aerosol species on orographic precipitation over California's central Sierra Nevada." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15(11), 10.5194/acp-15-6535-2015.


Fast JD, J Allan, R Bahreini, J Craven, L Emmons, R Ferrare, PL Hayes, A Hodzic, J Holloway, C Hostetler, JL Jimenez, H Jonsson, S Liu, Y Liu, A Metcalf, A Middlebrook, J Nowak, M Pekour, A Perring, L Russell, A Sedlacek, J Seinfeld, A Setyan, J Shilling, M Shrivastava, S Springston, C Song, R Subramanian, JW Taylor, V Vinoj, Q Yang, RA Zaveri, and Q Zhang. 2014. "Modeling regional aerosol and aerosol precursor variability over California and its sensitivity to emissions and long-range transport during the 2010 CalNex and CARES campaigns." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14(18), 10.5194/acp-14-10013-2014.

Schmid B, JM Tomlinson, JM Hubbe, JM Comstock, F Mei, D Chand, MS Pekour, CD Kluzek, E Andrews, SC Biraud, and GM McFarquhar. 2014. "The DOE ARM Aerial Facility." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 95(5), 10.1175/bams-d-13-00040.1.

Rosenfeld D, R Chemke, K Prather, K Suski, J Comstock, B Schmid, J Tomlinson, and H Jonsson. 2014. "Polluting of winter convective clouds upon transition from ocean inland over Central California: Contrasting Case Studies." Atmospheric Research, 135-136, 10.1016/j.atmosres.2013.09.006.

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Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Duli Chand Nephelometer Order Data
Duli Chand Particle Soot Absorption Photometer - G-1 Aircraft Order Data
Jennifer Comstock 2D-S Particle Size Order Data
Jennifer Comstock High Volume Precip Spectrometer Order Data
Paul DeMott Continuous Flow Thermal Diffusion Chamber - Aboard Aircraft Order Data
John Hubbe Meteorology/State/Position Parameters- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Haflidi Jonsson Cloud Aerosol Precip Spectrometer(CAPS)/Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP) Order Data
Haflidi Jonsson Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer Order Data
Haflidi Jonsson Liquid Water Content (pvm-100a probe, SEA WCM-2000) Order Data
Athanasios Nenes Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter Order Data
Kimberly Prather Aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer Order Data
Greg Roberts Mini CCN Spectrometer Data Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Cloud Droplet Probe Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Condensation Particle Counters - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Video - G1 Aircraft Order Data
Xiao-Ying Yu Carbon Monoxide and Nitrous Oxide Order Data