Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO)

22 January 2009 - 30 June 2009

Lead Scientist: Andrew Vogelmann

Observatory: aaf, sgp

The ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) supported the Routine AAF Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) field campaign, led by principal investigator Andrew Vogelmann. During this long-term campaign, the AAF conducted routine flights at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site to sample low-altitude liquid-water clouds in the boundary layer. The purpose was to obtain representative statistics of cloud microphysical properties needed to validate retrieval algorithms and support process studies and model simulations of boundary layer clouds and, in particular, CLOWD-type clouds. See the RACORO Data Guide for a summary of contacts, aircraft instrumentation, instrument status per flight, and flight patterns used.

Steering Committee: Andrew Vogelmann, Greg McFarquhar, John Ogren, Dave Turner, Jennifer Comstock, Graham Feingold, and Chuck Long


Jennifer Comstock
Graham Feingold
Chuck Long
Greg McFarquhar
John Ogren
David Turner


  • Child Campaign


Zhang D, A Vogelmann, F Yang, E Luke, P Kollias, Z Wang, P Wu, W Gustafson Jr., F Mei, S Glienke, J Tomlinson, and N Desai. 2023. "Evaluation of four ground-based retrievals of cloud droplet number concentration in marine stratocumulus with aircraft in situ measurements." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 16(23), 10.5194/amt-16-5827-2023.


Alexandrov M, A Marshak, B Cairns, and A Ackerman. 2022. "Markovian Statistical Model of Cloud Optical Thickness. Part I: Theory and Examples." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 79(12), 10.1175/JAS-D-22-0125.1.


Fridlind A, C Chiu, S Collis, J Comstock, S Giangrande, N Hickmon, M Jensen, M Kumjian, P Muradyan, R Newsom, A Sockol, M Sturm, and A Theisen. 2021. ARM Cloud and Precipitation Measurements and Science Group (CPMSG) Workshop Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-21-005.


Wei X, P Chan, and Z Kuang. 2020. "Two‐Point Mixing, Buoyancy Sorting, and Updraft Dilution in the RACORO Campaign." Geophysical Research Letters, 47(23), e2020GL090674, 10.1029/2020GL090674.

Drueke S, D Kirshbaum, and P Kollias. 2020. "Environmental sensitivities of shallow-cumulus dilution – Part 1: Selected thermodynamic conditions." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(21), 10.5194/acp-20-13217-2020.

Bogenschutz P, S Tang, P Caldwell, S Xie, W Lin, and Y Chen. 2020. "The E3SM version 1 single-column model." Geoscientific Model Development, 13(9), 10.5194/gmd-13-4443-2020.

Lu C, Y Liu, S Yum, J Chen, L Zhu, S Gao, Y Yin, X Jia, and Y Wang. 2020. "Reconciling Contrasting Relationships between Relative Dispersion and Volume‐Mean Radius of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125(9), e2019JD031868, 10.1029/2019JD031868.

Gao S, C Lu, Y Liu, F Mei, J Wang, L Zhu, and S Yan. 2020. "Contrasting Scale Dependence of Entrainment‐Mixing Mechanisms in Stratocumulus Clouds." Geophysical Research Letters, 47(9), e2020GL086970, 10.1029/2020GL086970.

Goss HB, KS Dorsey, CB Ireland, MR Wasem, RA Stafford, and R Jundt. 2020. 2019 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Annual Report. Ed. by Kathryn Dorsey, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-19-032. 10.2172/1604869.


Liu Y. 2019. "Introduction to the Special Section on Fast Physics in Climate Models: Parameterization, Evaluation, and Observation." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(15), 10.1029/2019JD030422.

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Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Elisabeth Andrews Aersol Optical Properties- Derived Order Data
Jennifer Comstock Merged Data Order Data
Owen Cooper GOES Order Data
Glenn Diskin Diode Laser Hygrometer Order Data
Richard Ferrare Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Order Data
Hermann Gerber Cloud Integrating Nephelometer Order Data
Haflidi Jonsson CIRPAS Basic Parameters Order Data
Haflidi Jonsson Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS) Order Data
Haflidi Jonsson Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer Order Data
Haflidi Jonsson FSSP 100 Order Data
Haflidi Jonsson Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Order Data
Haflidi Jonsson Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Order Data
Paul Lawson 2D-S Particle Size Order Data
Chuck Long Tilt Corrected Radiation Files Order Data
Chuck Long Tilt Corrected Radiation and MFR Calibrated Files Order Data
Greg McFarquhar Microphysical Cloud Properties-McFarquhar-Zhang Order Data
Greg McFarquhar Two-Dimensional Cloud Imaging Probe Order Data
Roy Woods Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter Order Data
Shaocheng Xie Cloud Modeling Best Estimate- Cloud and Radiation Order Data
Shaocheng Xie ncdc-synop-maps Order Data