Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy
 

CARBONAEROSOL

 

Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)

2 June 2010 - 28 June 2010

Lead Scientist: Rahul Zaveri

Observatory: AAF, MCC

The primary objective of the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in 2010 was to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their optical and hygroscopic properties in central California, with a focus on the Sacramento urban plume. Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols (BBA), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. However, significant knowledge gaps and uncertainties still exist in the process-level understanding of: 1) SOA formation, 2) BC mixing state evolution, and 3) the optical and hygroscopic properties of fresh and aged carbonaceous aerosols. Light absorption by organic aerosols in the near-UV spectrum was discovered to be a very important part of the radiation budget in a past DOE ASP field campaign, although many questions remain. Several specific science questions under these three topics were addressed during CARES 2010. In addition to obtaining new observation-based understanding from the anticipated field data, the CARES campaign strategy was centered on using the data in various focused model evaluation exercises, so that the resulting new knowledge could be integrated into regional and global climate chemistry models. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated, to the extent possible, with CalNex 2010, a major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC).

During summer, the Sacramento urban plume transport is controlled by highly consistent, terrain-driven upslope winds that draw polluted air to the northeast over the oak and pine trees in the Blodgett Forest area by late afternoon. The Sacramento-Blodgett Forest corridor therefore effectively serves as a mesoscale (~100 km) daytime flow reactor in which the urban aerosols undergo significant aging due to coagulation, condensation, and photochemical processes. The CARES campaign observation strategy consisted of the DOE G-1 aircraft sampling upwind, within, and outside of the evolving Sacramento urban plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft carrying a High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties. The aircraft measurements were complemented by a well-instrumented ground site within the Sacramento urban source area and a downwind receptor site near Cool, CA, to characterize the diurnal evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases/aerosol precursors, and aerosol composition and properties in freshly polluted and aged urban air. As opportunity allowed, one or more NOAA P-3 aircraft flights were carried out in the Sacramento plume in coordination with the G-1 flights to allow wing-tip to wing-tip inter-comparison and provide valuable additional measurements for CARES. The P-3 measurements throughout California provided a regional context for CARES. The resulting datasets lend themselves to focused model evaluation exercises, including local radiative and CCN closures; constrained Lagrangian modeling of SOA formation, aerosol size and composition evolution, and black carbon aging; and 3-D Eulerian modeling of radiative feedback of aerosols on meteorology and regional climate.

The second objective during CARES was to take advantage of natural wildfires in the vicinity to study the evolution and properties of biomass burning aerosol. Occurrence of natural wildfires is very likely all over the Central Valley during June/July. Thus, the location and timing of the CARES 2010 campaign allowed us to target such an opportunity when it arose.

For more information, see the Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES).

Co-Investigators

Daniel Cziczo
William Shaw

Related Publications

2018

Chakrabarty R and W Heinson. 2018. "Scaling Laws for Light Absorption Enhancement Due to Nonrefractory Coating of Atmospheric Black Carbon Aerosol." Physical Review Letters, 121(21), 218701, 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.218701.

Sharma N, S China, J Bhandari, K Gorkowski, M Dubey, R Zaveri, and C Mazzoleni. 2018. "Physical Properties of Aerosol Internally Mixed With Soot Particles in a Biogenically Dominated Environment in California." Geophysical Research Letters, 45(20), 10.1029/2018GL079404.

Atkinson D, M Pekour, D Chand, J Radney, K Kolesar, Q Zhang, A Setyan, NT O'Neill, and C Cappa. 2018. "Using spectral methods to obtain particle size information from optical data: applications to measurements from CARES 2010." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(8), 10.5194/acp-18-5499-2018.

2017

Gyawali M, W Arnott, R Zaveri, C Song, B Flowers, M Dubey, A Setyan, Q Zhang, S China, C Mazzoleni, K Gorkowski, R Subramanian, and H Moosmüller. 2017. "Evolution of Multispectral Aerosol Absorption Properties in a Biogenically-Influenced Urban Environment during the CARES Campaign." Atmosphere, 8(11), 10.3390/atmos8110217.

Murphy B, M Woody, J Jimenez, A Carlton, P Hayes, S Liu, N Ng, L Russell, A Setyan, L Xu, J Young, R Zaveri, Q Zhang, and H Pye. 2017. "Semivolatile POA and parameterized total combustion SOA in CMAQv5.2: impacts on source strength and partitioning." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17(18), 10.5194/acp-17-11107-2017.

2016

Moffet R, R O'Brien, P Alpert, S Kelly, D Pham, M Gilles, D Knopf, and A Laskin. 2016. "Morphology and mixing of black carbon particles collected in central California during the CARES field study." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16(22), 10.5194/acp-16-14515-2016.

Zhao C, M Huang, JD Fast, LK Berg, Y Qian, A Guenther, D Gu, M Shrivastava, Y Liu, S Walters, G Pfister, J Jin, JE Shilling, and C Warneke. 2016. "Sensitivity of biogenic volatile organic compounds to land surface parameterizations and vegetation distributions in California." Geoscientific Model Development, 9(5), 10.5194/gmd-9-1959-2016.
Research Highlight

Kleinman L, C Kuang, A Sedlacek, G Senum, S Springston, J Wang, Q Zhang, J Jayne, J Fast, J Hubbe, J Shilling, and R Zaveri. 2016. "What do correlations tell us about anthropogenic–biogenic interactions and SOA formation in the Sacramento plume during CARES?" Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16(3), 10.5194/acp-16-1729-2016.

2015

Lupascu A, R Easter, R Zaveri, M Shrivastava, M Pekour, J Tomlinson, Q Yang, H Matsui, A Hodzic, Q Zhang, and JD Fast. 2015. "Modeling particle nucleation and growth over northern California during the 2010 CARES campaign." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15(21), 10.5194/acp-15-12283-2015.

Gan CM, F Binkowski, J Pleim, J Xing, D Wong, R Mathur, and R Gilliam. 2015. "Assessment of the aerosol optics component of the coupled WRF–CMAQ model using CARES field campaign data and a single column model." Atmospheric Environment, 115, 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.11.028.


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Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
William Arnott Photoacoustic Spectroscopy- T0 Site Order Data
William Arnott Photoacoustic Spectroscopy- T1 Site Order Data
Dean Atkinson Cavity Ring-down Transmissometer and Radiance Research Nephelometer- T0 Site Order Data
Dean Atkinson Humidity Controlled Cavity Ring-down Transmissometer (HCCRDT)- T1 Site Order Data
Jaime Barnard Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer- T0 Site Order Data
Jaime Barnard Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer- T1 Site Order Data
Jaime Barnard PSP Radiometer- T0 Site Order Data
Jaime Barnard PSP Radiometer- T1 Site Order Data
Larry Berg Radar Wind Profiler- T1 Site Order Data
Larry Berg Radiosondes- T0 Site Order Data
Larry Berg Radiosondes- T1 Site Order Data
Larry Berg Sodar- T0 Site Order Data
Larry Berg Sodar- T1 Site Order Data
Larry Berg Surface Meteorology- T1 Site Order Data
Brian Cairns Research Scanning Polarimeter- B200 Aircraft Order Data
Chris Cappa Cavity Ring Down Photoacoustic Spectrometer- T0 Site Order Data
Daniel Cziczo Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter- T0 Site Order Data
Daniel Cziczo Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter- T1 Site Order Data
Daniel Cziczo Nephelometer- T1 Site Order Data
Daniel Cziczo Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry- T1 Site Order Data
Manvendra Dubey Gas Monitors- T1 Site Order Data
Manvendra Dubey Three-wavelengths Photoacoustic and Nephelometer Integrated Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Manvendra Dubey Three-wavelengths Photoacoustic and Nephelometer Integrated Spectrometer- T0 Site Order Data
Manvendra Dubey Three-wavelengths Photoacoustic and Nephelometer Integrated Spectrometer- T1 Site Order Data
Jerome Fast Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Output- T0, T1 Sites Order Data
Richard Ferrare HSR Lidar- B200 Aircraft Order Data
Bertram Jobson Aerodynamic Particle Sizer- T0 Site Order Data
Bertram Jobson Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, and Nitrogen Oxides- T0 Site Order Data
Bertram Jobson Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry- T0 Site Order Data
Bertram Jobson Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer - T0 Site Order Data
Bertram Jobson Surface Meteorology- T0 Site Order Data
Celine Kluzek Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS)- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Walter Knighton Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer- T1 Site Order Data
Alena Kubatova High Volume Aerosol Sampler- T0 Site Order Data
Alena Kubatova High Volume Aerosol Sampler- T1 Site Order Data
Alexander Laskin Time Resolved Aerosol Collectors- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Alexander Laskin Time Resolved Aerosol Collectors- T0 Site Order Data
Alexander Laskin Time Resolved Aerosol Collectors- T1 Site Order Data
Nels Laulainen Actinic Flux- T1 Site Order Data
Nels Laulainen JNO2- T0 Site Order Data
Claudio Mazzoleni Scanning Electron Microscope- T0 Site Order Data
Claudio Mazzoleni Scanning Electron Microscope- T1 Site Order Data
Mikhail Pekour Aerodynamic Particle Sizer- T1 Site Order Data
Mikhail Pekour Aerosol Monitoring System- T0 Site Order Data
Mikhail Pekour Aerosol Monitoring System- T1 Site Order Data
Kimberly Prather Single Particle Mass Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Arthur Sedlacek Aethalometer- T1 Site Order Data
Arthur Sedlacek Single Particle Soot Photometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Gunnar Senum Accelerometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Gunnar Senum Turbulence- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Gunnar Senum Vertical Velocity- G1 Aircraft Order Data
John Shilling Aerosol Mass Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
John Shilling Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Chen Song Aerosol Mass Spectrometer- T0 Site Order Data
Chen Song Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and CPC- T0 Site Order Data
Chen Song Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer- T0 Site Order Data
Stephen Springston Chemical Gas Analyzers- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Stephen Springston Cloud Aerosol Precip Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Stephen Springston Meteorology/State/Position Parameters- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Stephen Springston Nephelometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Stephen Springston Particle Soot Absorption Photometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
R. Subramanian Single Particle Soot Photometer- T0 Site Order Data
R. Subramanian Single Particle Soot Photometer- T1 Site Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Condensation Particle Counter Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Jian Wang Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter- T1 Site Order Data
Jian Wang Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft Order Data
Xiao-Ying Yu Organic and Elemental Carbon Analysis- T0 Site Order Data
Xiao-Ying Yu Organic and Elemental Carbon Analysis- T1 Site Order Data
Alla Zelenyuk-Imre Single Particle Laser Ablasion Time II- T0 Site Order Data
Qi Zhang Aerosol Mass Spectrometer- T1 Site Order Data
Qi Zhang Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS)- T0 Site Order Data
Qi Zhang Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS)- T1 Site Order Data
Qi Zhang Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer- T1 Site Order Data