Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)
2 June 2010 - 28 June 2010
Lead Scientist: Rahul Zaveri
Observatory: AAF, MCC
The primary objective of the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in 2010 was to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their optical and hygroscopic properties in central California, with a focus on the Sacramento urban plume. Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols (BBA), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. However, significant knowledge gaps and uncertainties still exist in the process-level understanding of: 1) SOA formation, 2) BC mixing state evolution, and 3) the optical and hygroscopic properties of fresh and aged carbonaceous aerosols. Light absorption by organic aerosols in the near-UV spectrum was discovered to be a very important part of the radiation budget in a past DOE ASP field campaign, although many questions remain. Several specific science questions under these three topics were addressed during CARES 2010. In addition to obtaining new observation-based understanding from the anticipated field data, the CARES campaign strategy was centered on using the data in various focused model evaluation exercises, so that the resulting new knowledge could be integrated into regional and global climate chemistry models. The sampling strategy during CARES was coordinated, to the extent possible, with CalNex 2010, a major field campaign that was planned in California in 2010 by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the California Energy Commission (CEC).
During summer, the Sacramento urban plume transport is controlled by highly consistent, terrain-driven upslope winds that draw polluted air to the northeast over the oak and pine trees in the Blodgett Forest area by late afternoon. The Sacramento-Blodgett Forest corridor therefore effectively serves as a mesoscale (~100 km) daytime flow reactor in which the urban aerosols undergo significant aging due to coagulation, condensation, and photochemical processes. The CARES campaign observation strategy consisted of the DOE G-1 aircraft sampling upwind, within, and outside of the evolving Sacramento urban plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The NASA B-200 aircraft carrying a High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties. The aircraft measurements were complemented by a well-instrumented ground site within the Sacramento urban source area and a downwind receptor site near Cool, CA, to characterize the diurnal evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases/aerosol precursors, and aerosol composition and properties in freshly polluted and aged urban air. As opportunity allowed, one or more NOAA P-3 aircraft flights were carried out in the Sacramento plume in coordination with the G-1 flights to allow wing-tip to wing-tip inter-comparison and provide valuable additional measurements for CARES. The P-3 measurements throughout California provided a regional context for CARES. The resulting datasets lend themselves to focused model evaluation exercises, including local radiative and CCN closures; constrained Lagrangian modeling of SOA formation, aerosol size and composition evolution, and black carbon aging; and 3-D Eulerian modeling of radiative feedback of aerosols on meteorology and regional climate.
The second objective during CARES was to take advantage of natural wildfires in the vicinity to study the evolution and properties of biomass burning aerosol. Occurrence of natural wildfires is very likely all over the Central Valley during June/July. Thus, the location and timing of the CARES 2010 campaign allowed us to target such an opportunity when it arose.
For more information, see the Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES).
Zaveri R, J Shilling, J Fast, and S Springston. 2020. "Efficient Nighttime Biogenic SOA Formation in a Polluted Residual Layer." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125(6), e2019JD031583, 10.1029/2019JD031583.
Pai S, C Heald, J Pierce, S Farina, E Marais, J Jimenez, P Campuzano-Jost, B Nault, A Middlebrook, H Coe, J Shilling, R Bahreini, J Dingle, and K Vu. 2020. "An evaluation of global organic aerosol schemes using airborne observations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(5), 10.5194/acp-20-2637-2020.
Bhandari J, S China, K Chandrakar, G Kinney, W Cantrell, R Shaw, L Mazzoleni, G Girotto, N Sharma, K Gorkowski, S Gilardoni, S Decesari, M Facchini, N Zanca, G Pavese, F Esposito, M Dubey, A Aiken, R Chakrabarty, H Moosmüller, T Onasch, R Zaveri, B Scarnato, P Fialho, and C Mazzoleni. 2019. "Extensive Soot Compaction by Cloud Processing from Laboratory and Field Observations." Scientific Reports, 9(1), 11824, 10.1038/s41598-019-48143-y.
Chakrabarty R and W Heinson. 2018. "Scaling Laws for Light Absorption Enhancement Due to Nonrefractory Coating of Atmospheric Black Carbon Aerosol." Physical Review Letters, 121(21), 218701, 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.218701.
Sharma N, S China, J Bhandari, K Gorkowski, M Dubey, R Zaveri, and C Mazzoleni. 2018. "Physical Properties of Aerosol Internally Mixed With Soot Particles in a Biogenically Dominated Environment in California." Geophysical Research Letters, 45(20), 10.1029/2018GL079404.
Atkinson D, M Pekour, D Chand, J Radney, K Kolesar, Q Zhang, A Setyan, NT O'Neill, and C Cappa. 2018. "Using spectral methods to obtain particle size information from optical data: applications to measurements from CARES 2010." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(8), 10.5194/acp-18-5499-2018.
Gyawali M, W Arnott, R Zaveri, C Song, B Flowers, M Dubey, A Setyan, Q Zhang, S China, C Mazzoleni, K Gorkowski, R Subramanian, and H Moosmüller. 2017. "Evolution of Multispectral Aerosol Absorption Properties in a Biogenically-Influenced Urban Environment during the CARES Campaign." Atmosphere, 8(11), 10.3390/atmos8110217.
Murphy B, M Woody, J Jimenez, A Carlton, P Hayes, S Liu, N Ng, L Russell, A Setyan, L Xu, J Young, R Zaveri, Q Zhang, and H Pye. 2017. "Semivolatile POA and parameterized total combustion SOA in CMAQv5.2: impacts on source strength and partitioning." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17(18), 10.5194/acp-17-11107-2017.
Moffet R, R O'Brien, P Alpert, S Kelly, D Pham, M Gilles, D Knopf, and A Laskin. 2016. "Morphology and mixing of black carbon particles collected in central California during the CARES field study." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16(22), 10.5194/acp-16-14515-2016.
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Campaign Data Sets
|IOP Participant||Data Source Name||Final Data|
|William Arnott||Photoacoustic Spectroscopy- T0 Site||Order Data|
|William Arnott||Photoacoustic Spectroscopy- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Dean Atkinson||Cavity Ring-down Transmissometer and Radiance Research Nephelometer- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Dean Atkinson||Humidity Controlled Cavity Ring-down Transmissometer (HCCRDT)- T1 Site||Order Data|
|James Barnard||Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer- T0 Site||Order Data|
|James Barnard||Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer- T1 Site||Order Data|
|James Barnard||PSP Radiometer- T0 Site||Order Data|
|James Barnard||PSP Radiometer- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Larry Berg||Radar Wind Profiler- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Larry Berg||Radiosondes- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Larry Berg||Radiosondes- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Larry Berg||Sodar- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Larry Berg||Sodar- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Larry Berg||Surface Meteorology- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Brian Cairns||Research Scanning Polarimeter- B200 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Chris Cappa||Cavity Ring Down Photoacoustic Spectrometer- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Daniel Cziczo||Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Daniel Cziczo||Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Daniel Cziczo||Nephelometer- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Daniel Cziczo||Particle Analysis by Laser Mass Spectrometry- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Manvendra Dubey||Gas Monitors- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Manvendra Dubey||Three-wavelengths Photoacoustic and Nephelometer Integrated Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Manvendra Dubey||Three-wavelengths Photoacoustic and Nephelometer Integrated Spectrometer- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Manvendra Dubey||Three-wavelengths Photoacoustic and Nephelometer Integrated Spectrometer- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Jerome Fast||Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model Output- T0, T1 Sites||Order Data|
|Richard Ferrare||HSR Lidar- B200 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Bertram Jobson||Aerodynamic Particle Sizer- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Bertram Jobson||Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, and Nitrogen Oxides- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Bertram Jobson||Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Bertram Jobson||Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer - T0 Site||Order Data|
|Bertram Jobson||Surface Meteorology- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Celine Kluzek||Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS)- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Walter Knighton||Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Alena Kubatova||High Volume Aerosol Sampler- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Alena Kubatova||High Volume Aerosol Sampler- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Alexander Laskin||Time Resolved Aerosol Collectors- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Alexander Laskin||Time Resolved Aerosol Collectors- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Alexander Laskin||Time Resolved Aerosol Collectors- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Nels Laulainen||Actinic Flux- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Nels Laulainen||JNO2- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Claudio Mazzoleni||Scanning Electron Microscope- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Claudio Mazzoleni||Scanning Electron Microscope- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Mikhail Pekour||Aerodynamic Particle Sizer- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Mikhail Pekour||Aerosol Monitoring System- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Mikhail Pekour||Aerosol Monitoring System- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Kimberly Prather||Single Particle Mass Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Arthur Sedlacek||Aethalometer- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Arthur Sedlacek||Single Particle Soot Photometer- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Gunnar Senum||Accelerometer- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Gunnar Senum||Turbulence- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Gunnar Senum||Vertical Velocity- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|John Shilling||Aerosol Mass Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|John Shilling||Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Chen Song||Aerosol Mass Spectrometer- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Chen Song||Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and CPC- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Chen Song||Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Stephen Springston||Chemical Gas Analyzers- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Stephen Springston||Cloud Aerosol Precip Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Stephen Springston||Meteorology/State/Position Parameters- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Stephen Springston||Nephelometer- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Stephen Springston||Particle Soot Absorption Photometer- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|R. Subramanian||Single Particle Soot Photometer- T0 Site||Order Data|
|R. Subramanian||Single Particle Soot Photometer- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Jason Tomlinson||Condensation Particle Counter||Order Data|
|Jason Tomlinson||Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Jian Wang||Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Jian Wang||Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer- G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Xiao-Ying Yu||Organic and Elemental Carbon Analysis- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Xiao-Ying Yu||Organic and Elemental Carbon Analysis- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Alla Zelenyuk-Imre||Single Particle Laser Ablasion Time II- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Qi Zhang||Aerosol Mass Spectrometer- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Qi Zhang||Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS)- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Qi Zhang||Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS)- T1 Site||Order Data|
|Qi Zhang||Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer- T1 Site||Order Data|