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Measurement Platforms



Platform Measurements Scientific Objectives
SGP Central Facility;
2 Additional Supersites
Tower observations of surface fluxes including sensible, latent, and CO2 fluxes, meteorological measurements and 4-component radiation measurements. Intensive soil moisture measurements will be made for specific regions within the domain using in-situ networks and new aircraft sensors. Replicate towers to quantify flux variance and provide statistics for examining differences in fluxes across land use. Eddy Correlation studies included. Acquire satellite-based flux products throughout the region and assistance in the application of soil moisture retrieval algorithms and processing of PSR data sets. Understand the impact of landscape changes affecting energy balance/flux partitioning on cloud/atmospheric dynamics by assessing critical factors such as canopy temperature, vapor pressure deficit, and soil moisture availability. Evaluate parameters for modeling surface flux. Study how cumulus clouds impact evapotranspiration and carbon flux and what feedbacks exist.
Eddy Flux Towers Evapotranspiration and carbon dioxide fluxes from an irrigated and a winter wheat field. Evaluate parameters for modeling surface flux. Study how soil moisture and land cover changes, such as agricultural harvesting, impact evapotranspiration and carbon flux, and what feedbacks exist.
Phased Array Radar CIRPAS phased array radar reduces the volume scan time from minutes to seconds, providing a unique mapping of precipitation. Study the effects of 3D structure of shallow and deep precipitation on cloud evolution.
Radiosondes Measure vertical profiles of atmospheric state. Provide and improved characterization of large scale climate forcing over the SGP domain.
Tethersondes Continuous measurements of wind, temperature, and pressure to characterize the atmospheric boundary layer. Enhance land/atmosphere interaction studies and modeling in conjunction with the PALS soil moisture and helicopter observation platform’s flux measurements.
Cessna 206 aircraft Aerosol optical properties and carbon cycle gases. Improve understanding of the direct effect of aerosols in climate change and provide a measure of carbon fluxes.
ER-2 Aircraft Cloud properties, surface characterization, 3-Dimensional cloud field, profiles of cloud location, radar reflectivity, lidar backscatter, and surface properties (see instruments). Study the role of land surface fluxes in the evolution of clouds through high altitude observations.
Twin Otter Aircraft Detailed in-situ cloud, aerosol, carbon cycle gases and meteorological measurements (see instruments). Study the role of aerosols in the evolution of clouds.
Twin Otter Aircraft with PALS Region specific intensive soil moisture and vegetative cover. Study the role of soil moisture in latent heat flux, evapotranspiration, and cloud formation.
Helicopter Low altitude flux measurements, soil moisture sensor data over ground sites, and landscape/regional information. Study the role of land surface fluxes in the evolution of clouds through low altitude observations.
Jetstream-31 with Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) Spectral directional reflectance over a variety of land cover types. Derive surface BRDF and column aerosol properties of different atmospheric layers and from combined data sets (CAR and AERONET); validate satellite retrievals of surface BRDF.
P-3 Aircraft Polarimetric scanning radiometer. Provide retrievals of surface emissivity and soil moisture.
Satellites Satellites carrying active sensors, such as CloudSat and Calipso are expected to provide spaceborne measurements, including surface albedo, surface fluxes, soil moisture remote sensing (Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer), vegetation indices and derived terrestrial hydrology products. Investigate the role of surface properties in heat and water vapor fluxes and cloud formation.
Oklahoma Mesonet Soil moisture network. Modeling of water vapor fluxes.
Partner Platform Measurements Scientific Objectives
G-1 Aircraft Detailed measurements of both the chemical and optical properties of aerosols. Intercomparison with Twin Otter measurements.
King Air B200 Downward looking lidar measurements. Aerosol extinction and back-scatter vertical profiles.