twr: Facility-specific multi-level Meteorological Instrumentation

Three tall towers are installed at ARM sites: a 60-m triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21 m walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee forest site (E21), and a 40-m triangular tower at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) at Barrow.

The towers are used for meteorological, radiological, and other measurements.

Instrument systems installed on the towers are listed in section 7, Instrument Details, although only the temperature/relative humidity/vapor pressure (T/RH/VP) measurements made on the SGP CF tower are described in detail. Information on measurements made by the other instrument systems on the towers can be found at individual instrument systems web pages.



  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Active Instrument Locations

Facility Name Instrument Start Date
Central Facility, Lamont, OK 1993-07-21
Central Facility, Barrow AK 2003-10-31


Berg L, C Long, E Kassianov, D Chand, S Tai, Z Yang, L Riihimaki, S Biraud, J Tagestad, A Matthews, A Mendoza, F Mei, J Tomlinson, and J Fast. 2020. "Fine Scale Variability of Observed and Simulated Surface Albedo over the Southern Great Plains." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125(7), e2019JD030559, 10.1029/2019JD030559.


Turner D and W Blumberg. 2019. "Improvements to the AERIoe Thermodynamic Profile Retrieval Algorithm." IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 12(5), 10.1109/JSTARS.2018.2874968.


Emerson E, J Katich, J Schwarz, G McMeeking, and D Farmer. 2018. "Direct Measurements of Dry and Wet Deposition of Black Carbon Over a Grassland." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(21), 10.1029/2018JD028954.

Li H, D Moisseev, and A von Lerber. 2018. "How Does Riming Affect Dual-Polarization Radar Observations and Snowflake Shape?" Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(11), 10.1029/2017JD028186.


Ke Y, J Im, S Park, and H Gong. 2017. "Spatiotemporal downscaling approaches for monitoring 8-day 30 m actual evapotranspiration." ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 126, 10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2017.02.006.


Cook DR. 2016. Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook. U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-050.

Cook DR. 2016. Towers Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-050.


Klein PM, TA Bonin, JF Newman, DD Turner, PB Chilson, CE Wainwright, WG Blumberg, S Mishra, M Carney, EP Jacobsen, S Wharton, and RK Newsom. 2015. "LABLE: A Multi-Institutional, Student-Led, Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96(10), 10.1175/bams-d-13-00267.1.

Van Weverberg K, CJ Morcrette, H Ma, SA Klein, and JC Petch. 2015. "Using regime analysis to identify the contribution of clouds to surface temperature errors in weather and climate models." Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 141(693), 10.1002/qj.2603.
Research Highlight

Bonin TA, WG Blumberg, PM Klein, and PB Chilson. 2015. "Thermodynamic and Turbulence Characteristics of the Southern Great Plains Nocturnal Boundary Layer Under Differing Turbulent Regimes." Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 157(3), 10.1007/s10546-015-0072-2. ONLINE.

View All Related Publications