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The current research/data set deals with environmental data related to the region around the city of Manaus, Brazil, located in the Amazon Basin central region. The research problem encompasses the answers to the questions: 'What correlations can arise from the data of climate and fauna in the Amazon Basin?" "How useful is the data from instrumented stations related to that area, related to the fauna and climatic conditions?"

To answer these questions, an initial data set was generated, taking into account the main pollutants with sources from NASA satellites, the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) experiment, and the GOAmazon project, from 2014 to 2015, along with other local data, such as the position of thermal electric power stations.

It has been worth noting the data available was not coherent among the sources, due to different measuring time intervals, heights, and geographical locations. Equally important, for future bioclimatic research, a grid space of 5-km interval and a 30-minute time period was considered within the data set, covering a surface area within the boundaries of Latitude 2.00 S to 4.25 S and Longitude 59.00 to 61.25 W. The data from NASA satellites, ATTO, and GOAmazon do not have this kind of detailed grid and time mesh. To carry on, the machine learning (ML) Random Forest (RF) algorithm was selected and used, among other ML algorithms, to fill in the data into this new grid. The features considered were: data from NASA satellites and from the two projects above, covering the pollutants: ozone, NOx, particulates with diameter down to 10 nanometers, isoprene, CO, and acetonitrile. Moreover, distances and bearings to Manaus and 11 thermal power stations nearby, night and day time periods, dry and wet seasons, were also considered to compose the features.

The interpolation produced by the Random Forest algorithm aimed at the pollutants: acetonitrile, ozone, NOx, Particulate N, isoprene, and CO, which are related to bioclimatic research commonly. In total, a data set was created with 51,148,800 rows, with 44 columns, 38 for the features and 6 for the targets.

Purpose

The main purpose of the dataset is to offer atmospheric data in high spatial resolution in the GoAmazon study area. This dataset could be used in future bioclimatic research projects aiming to investigate relationships between fauna distribution, land use and atmospheric conditions.

Data Details

Developed By Andre Luis Ferreira Marques
Contact Andre Luis Ferreira Marques
Resource(s) Data Directory
ReadMe
Data format csv
Content time range 20 November 2014 - 20 April 2015
Attribute accuracy The dataset output was checked against ground based measurements, one at a time and kept outside the data generation, in order to verify the accuracy. As expected, the dataset has values coherents with the measurements, although there are differences, depending on the season, day time and month. One explanation for these results comes from the fact that there is no measured data for the time interval of every 30 minutes, as shown in the dataset. For further information on the accuracy, please make contact with the author.
Positional accuracy GPS and ATTO Project tower sites.
Data Consistency and Completeness Data set is considered complete for the information presented, as described in the abstract. The accuracy may vary depending on season and day time period. For further information, please make contact with the author. Users are advised to read the rest of the metadata record carefully for additional details.
Access Restriction No access constraints are associated with this data.
Use Restriction No use constraints are associated with this data.
File naming convention not applicable
Directory Organization not applicable
Citations Guenther, A. 2014. Photon Transfer Mass Spectrometer: Volatile organic compounds measurements at the T3 site during GOAMAZON. https://iop.archive.arm.gov/arm-iop/2014/mao/goamazon/T3/guenther-voc/ Jardine, K. 2014. Photon Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer: Volatile organic compounds measurements during GOAMAZON. https://iop.archive.arm.gov/arm-iop/2014/mao/goamazon/T3/jardine-ptrms/ Martin, S, and Watson, T. 2014. Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer: Volatile organic compound measurements at the T3 site during GOAMAZON. https://iop.archive.arm.gov/arm-iop/2014/mao/goamazon/T3/martin-ptrtofms/ Mei, F, and Tomlinson, J. 2014. Condensation Particle Counters: Aerosol concentration measurements aboard G1 aircraft during GOAMAZON. https://iop.archive.arm.gov/arm-iop/2014/mao/goamazon/mei-cpc/ Shilling, J. 2014. Photon Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer: Volatile organic compounds measurements onboard the G-1 during GOAMAZON IOP2. https://iop.archive.arm.gov/arm-iop/2014/mao/goamazon/shilling-ptrms/ Springston, S. 2014. Carbon Monoxide and Nitrous Oxide: Tracegases measurements aboard G1 aircraft during GOAMAZON. https://iop.archive.arm.gov/arm-iop/2014/mao/goamazon/springston-tracegases/ Yee, L. 2014. Aerosol Gas Chromatograph: Volatile organic compound measurements at the T3 site during GOAMAZON IOP1 and IOP2. https://iop.archive.arm.gov/arm-iop/2014/mao/goamazon/T3/goldstein-svtag/ Nativi, S. et al. Big data challenges in building the global earth observation system of systems. 177 Environ. Model. & Softw. 68, 126, https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ENVSOFT.2015.01.017 (2015). Guo, H. Big Earth data: A new frontier in Earth and information sciences. Big Earth Data 1, 420, 179 https://doi.org/10.1080/20964471.2017.1403062 (2017). Rodrigues, M. New Report Puts the Amazon Rain Forest on the Main Stage at COP26. https://eos.org/articles/new-report-puts-the-amazon-rain-forest-on-the-main-stage-at-cop26 (2021). Accessed on 182 25-Nov-2021. Nobre, C. et al. Executive Summary of the Amazon Assessment Report 2021. https://www. 184 theamazonwewant.org/amazon-assessment-report-2021/ (2021). Acessed on 07-Fev-2022. Marengo, J. A. et al. Changes in climate and land use over the amazon region: Current and future 186 variability and trends. Front. Earth Sci. 6, https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2018.00228 (2018). Gatti, L. V. et al. Amazonia as a carbon source linked to deforestation and climate change. Nat. 2021 188 595:7867 595, 388-393, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03629-6 (2021). Covey, K. et al. Carbon and beyond: The biogeochemistry of climate in a rapidly changing amazon. 190 Front. For. Glob. Chang. 4, https://doi.org/10.3389/ffgc.2021.618401 (2021). Martin, S. T. et al. The green ocean amazon experiment (GOAMAZON2014/5) observes pollution 192 affecting gases, aerosols, clouds, and rainfall over the rain forest. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 98, 193 https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00221.1 (2017). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estat­astica. Conhea as cidades e estados do Brasil. https: 195 //cidades.ibge.gov.br/brasil/am/manaus/panorama (2022). Acessed on 06-Jan-2022. Pacifico, F. et al. Biomass burning related ozone damage on vegetation over the amazon forest: a model 197 sensitivity study. Atmospheric Chem. Phys. 15, 2791-2804, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-2791-2015 198 (2015). Zvereva, E. L. & Kozlov, M. V. Responses of terrestrial arthropods to air pollution: A meta-analysis. 200 Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 17, 297-311, https://doi.org/10.1007/S11356-009-0138-0/TABLES/1 201 (2010). ATTO. Amazon Tall Tower Observatory - Earth system research in the Amazon rainforest. https: 203 //www.attodata.org/ (2022). Accessed on 05-Jan-2022. Kuhn, U. et al. Impact of manaus city on the amazon green ocean atmosphere: ozone production, 205 precursor sensitivity and aerosol load. Atmospheric Chem. Phys. 10, 9251-9282, https://doi.org/10. 206 5194/acp-10-9251-2010 (2010). Seinfeld, J. H. & Pandis, S. N. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate 208 Change, 3rd Edition (John Wiley Sons, 2006). Andreae, M. O. et al. Carbon monoxide and related trace gases and aerosols over the amazon basin 210 during the wet and dry seasons. Atmospheric Chem. Phys. 12, 6041-6065, https://doi.org/10.5194/ 211 acp-12-6041-2012 (2012). Fowler, D. et al. Ground-level ozone in the 21st century: future trends, impacts and policy implications 213 (The Royal Society, 2008). Ahrens, C. D. & Henson, R. Meteorology today: an introduction to weather, climate, and the 215 environment (Cengage learning, 2012). Cirino, G. G., Souza, R. A. F., Adams, D. K. & Artaxo, P. The effect of atmospheric aerosol particles 217 and clouds on net ecosystem exchange in the amazon. Atmospheric Chem. Phys. 14, 6523-6543, 218 https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-6523-2014 (2014). Holzinger, R. et al. Biomass burning as a source of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, methanol, acetone, 220 acetonitrile, and hydrogen cyanide. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1161-1164, https://doi.org/10.1029/ 221 1999GL900156 (1999). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Aura OMI complete NASA dataset. https://earth.esa. 223 int/eogateway/catalog/aura-omi-complete-nasa-dataset (2021). Acessed on 06-Jan-2022 Abou Rafee, S. A. et al. Contributions of mobile, stationary and biogenic sources to air pollution in 225 the amazon rainforest: a numerical study with the wrf-chem model. Atmospheric Chem. Phys. 17, 226 7977-7995, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-7977-2017 (2017).

2021

Shupe M, D Chu, D Costa, C Cox, J Creamean, G de Boer, K Dethloff, R Engelmann, M Gallagher, E Hunke, W Maslowski, A McComiskey, J Osborn, O Persson, H Powers, K Pratt, D Randall, A Solomon, M Tjernstrom, D Turner, J Uin, T Uttal, J Verlinde, and D Wagner. 2021. Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) Field Campaign Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-21-007. 10.2172/1787856.

2020

Pennypacker S, M Diamond, and R Wood. 2020. "Ultra-clean and smoky marine boundary layers frequently occur in the same season over the southeast Atlantic." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(4), 10.5194/acp-20-2341-2020.

2018

Cirino G, J Brito, H Barbosa, L Rizzo, P Tunved, S de Sá, J Jimenez, B Palm, S Carbone, J Lavric, R Souza, S Wolff, D Walter, J Tota, M Oliveira, S Martin, and P Artaxo. 2018. "Observations of Manaus urban plume evolution and interaction with biogenic emissions in GoAmazon 2014/5." Atmospheric Environment, 191, 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.08.031.

2017

Freire L, T Gerken, J Ruiz-Plancarte, D Wei, J Fuentes, G Katul, N Dias, O Acevedo, and M Chamecki. 2017. "Turbulent mixing and removal of ozone within an Amazon rainforest canopy." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(5), 10.1002/2016JD026009.

Raz-Yaseef N, M Torn, Y Wu, D Billesbach, A Liljedahl, T Kneafsey, V Romanovsky, D Cook, and S Wullschleger. 2017. "Large CO2 and CH4 emissions from polygonal tundra during spring thaw in northern Alaska." Geophysical Research Letters, 44(1), 10.1002/2016GL071220.


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