thwaps: Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure Sensors

The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure sensors (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS) launches. THWAPS are located adjacent to BBSS launch sites at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility and its four boundary facilities.

The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments that measure meteorological conditions near the surface. It includes a data logger to record time series of these variables.




  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Related Publications


Anber U, P Gentine, S Wang, and A Sobel. 2015. "Fog and rain in the Amazon." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(37), 10.1073/pnas.1505077112. ONLINE.
Research Highlight


Ritsche MT and J Prell. 2011. Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure System (THWAPS) Handbook. U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. ARM TR-030.


Zhang Y, CN Long, WB Rossow, and EG Dutton. 2010. "Exploiting diurnal variations to evaluate the ISCCP-FD flux calculations and radiative-flux-analysis-processed surface observations from BSRN, ARM, and SURFRAD." Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 115(D15), D00K11, 10.1029/2009jd012743.
Research Highlight


de Boer G, EW Eloranta, and MD Shupe. 2009. "Arctic Mixed-Phase Stratiform Cloud Properties from Multiple Years of Surface-Based Measurements at Two High-Latitude Locations." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 66(9), 10.1175/2009jas3029.1.


Voyles JW. 2007. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September – October 2007. DOE ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM/P-07-002.8.

View All Related Publications