thwaps > Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure SensorsInstrument Type(s) > Baseline

The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure sensors (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS) launches. THWAPS are located adjacent to BBSS launch sites at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility and its four boundary facilities.

The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments that measure meteorological conditions near the surface. It includes a data logger to record time series of these variables.




  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3


Vassallo D, R Krishnamurthy, T Sherman, and H Fernando. 2020. "Analysis of Random Forest Modeling Strategies for Multi-Step Wind Speed Forecasting." Energies, 13(20), 10.3390/en13205488.

kazemirad M and M Miller. 2020. "Summertime Post-Cold-Frontal Marine Stratocumulus Transition Processes over the Eastern North Atlantic." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 77(6), 10.1175/JAS-D-19-0167.1.


Blumberg WG, TJ Wagner, DD Turner, and J Correia. 2017. "Quantifying the Accuracy and Uncertainty of Diurnal Thermodynamic Profiles and Convection Indices Derived from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 56(10), 10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0036.1.


Anber U, P Gentine, S Wang, and A Sobel. 2015. "Fog and rain in the Amazon." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(37), 10.1073/pnas.1505077112.
Research Highlight

Jensen MP, T Toto, D Troyan, PE Ciesielski, D Holdridge, J Kyrouac, J Schatz, Y Zhang, and S Xie. 2015. "The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) sounding network: operations, processing and analysis." Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 8(1), 10.5194/amt-8-421-2015.


Ritsche MT and J Prell. 2011. Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure System (THWAPS) Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research. ARM TR-030.

Ritsche MT. 2011. Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure Sensors (THWAPS) Handbook. U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/SC-ARM/TR-030.


Zhang Y, CN Long, WB Rossow, and EG Dutton. 2010. "Exploiting diurnal variations to evaluate the ISCCP-FD flux calculations and radiative-flux-analysis-processed surface observations from BSRN, ARM, and SURFRAD." Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 115(D15), D00K11, 10.1029/2009jd012743.
Research Highlight


de Boer G, EW Eloranta, and MD Shupe. 2009. "Arctic Mixed-Phase Stratiform Cloud Properties from Multiple Years of Surface-Based Measurements at Two High-Latitude Locations." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 66(9), 10.1175/2009jas3029.1.


Jeong MJ, Z Li, E Andrew, and SC Tsay. 2007. "Effect of aerosol humidification on the column aerosol optical thickness over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site." Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 112(D10), D10202, 10.1029/2006jd007176.

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