swats: Soil Water and Temperature System

The Soil Water and Temperature System (SWATS) is designed to make hourly measurements of the soil temperature, soil water potential, and fractional water content of the soil at two profiles of eight depths at SGP Extended Facilities only.

SWATS systems were installed at all of the ARM Southern Great Plains Extended Facilities, except Okmulgee EF21. The SWATS systems were replaced with the STAMP systems in late 2015.



  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Related Publications


Zhu W, A Lv, S Jia, and L Sun. 2017. "Development and evaluation of the MTVDI for soil moisture monitoring." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(11), 10.1002/2017JD026607.

Cook D and A Theisen. 2017. SWATS: Diurnal Trends in the Soil Temperature Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-193.


Cook DR. 2016. Soil Water and Temperature System Instrument Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, DOE ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-063.


Ma H, C Chuang, SA Klein, M Lo, Y Zhang, S Xie, X Zheng, P Ma, Y Zhang, and TJ Phillips. 2015. "An improved hindcast approach for evaluation and diagnosis of physical processes in global climate models." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 7(4), 10.1002/2015ms000490.


Phillips TJ and SA Klein. 2014. "Land-atmosphere coupling manifested in warm-season observations on the U.S. southern great plains." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119(2), 10.1002/2013jd020492.


Zhang Y and SA Klein. 2013. "Factors Controlling the Vertical Extent of Fair-Weather Shallow Cumulus Clouds over Land: Investigation of Diurnal-Cycle Observations Collected at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 70(4), 10.1175/jas-d-12-0131.1.

Reda I, J Grobner, S Wacker, and T Stoffel. 2013. Results of first outdoor comparison between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD. Presented at Annual American Meteorological Society (AMS) Meeting. Potomac, MD.


Lamb PJ, DH Portis, and A Zangvil. 2012. "Investigation of Large-Scale Atmospheric Moisture Budget and Land Surface Interactions over U.S. Southern Great Plains including for CLASIC (June 2007)." Journal of Hydrometeorology, 13(6), JHM-D-12-01, 10.1175/jhm-d-12-01.1.


Voyles JW. 2010. ARM Climate Research Facility Monthly Instrument Report. DOE ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-10-006.7.


Hartsock D, J Monroe, and P Lamb. 2009. A Status Update for the ACRF SGP SWATS Network. Presented at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting.

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