swats > Soil Water and Temperature SystemInstrument Type(s) > Baseline

The soil water and temperature system (SWATS) is designed to make hourly measurements of the soil temperature, soil water potential, and fractional water content of the soil at two profiles of eight depths at SGP Extended Facilities only.

SWATS systems were installed at all of the ARM Southern Great Plains Extended Facilities, except Okmulgee EF21. The SWATS systems were replaced with the STAMP systems in late 2015.



  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3


Zhu W, J Wei, H Xiu, S Jia, and A Lv. 2021. "Coupled and continuous estimation of soil moisture and evaporative fraction within the remotely sensed surface temperature-vegetation index framework." Journal of Hydrology, 592, 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.125827.


Zhang C, S Xie, and C Tao. 2020. ARM Data-Oriented Metrics and Diagnostics Package for Climate Model Evaluation. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-202.


Tao C, Y Zhang, S Tang, Q Tang, H Ma, S Xie, and M Zhang. 2019. "Regional Moisture Budget and Land‐Atmosphere Coupling over the U.S. Southern Great Plains Inferred from the ARM Long‐Term Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(17-18), 10.1029/2019JD030585.
Research Highlight


Welty J and X Zeng. 2018. "Does Soil Moisture Affect Warm Season Precipitation Over the Southern Great Plains?" Geophysical Research Letters, 45(15), 10.1029/2018GL078598.

Cook DR. 2018. Soil Water and Temperatures System (SWATS) Instrument Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, DOE ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM TR-063.

Morcrette C, K Van Weverberg, H Ma, M Ahlgrimm, E Bazile, L Berg, A Cheng, F Cheruy, J Cole, R Forbes, W Gustafson, M Huang, W Lee, Y Liu, L Mellul, W Merryfield, Y Qian, R Roehrig, Y Wang, S Xie, K Xu, C Zhang, S Klein, and J Petch. 2018. "Introduction to CAUSES: Description of Weather and Climate Models and Their Near-Surface Temperature Errors in 5 day Hindcasts Near the Southern Great Plains." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 123(5), doi:10.1002/2017JD027199.
Research Highlight


Phillips T, S Klein, H Ma, Q Tang, S Xie, I Williams, J Santanello, D Cook, and M Torn. 2017. "Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Climate Model Simulations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling on the U.S. Southern Great Plains." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(21), doi:10.1002/2017JD027141.
Research Highlight

Zhu W, S Jia, and A Lv. 2017. "A time domain solution of the Modified Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (MTVDI) for continuous soil moisture monitoring." Remote Sensing of Environment, 200, 10.1016/j.rse.2017.07.032.

Zhu W, A Lv, S Jia, and L Sun. 2017. "Development and evaluation of the MTVDI for soil moisture monitoring." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(11), 10.1002/2017JD026607.

Cook D and A Theisen. 2017. SWATS: Diurnal Trends in the Soil Temperature Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-193.

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