smos: Surface Meteorological Observation System Instruments for SGP

The surface meteorological observation system (SMOS) mostly uses conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute, 30-minute, and 1440-minute (daily) averages of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and precipitation at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of ARM’s Southern Great Plains (SGP) observatory. The SMOSs are not calibrated as systems. The sensors and the data logger (which includes the analog-to-digital converter, or A/D) are calibrated separately. All systems are installed using components that have a current calibration. SMOSs have not been installed at extended facilities located within about 10 km of existing surface meteorological stations, such as those of the Oklahoma Mesonet.

These systems are used to create climatology for each particular location, and to verify the output of numerical weather forecast and other models. They are also used to “ground-truth” other remote-sensing equipment.



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Tao C, Y Zhang, S Tang, Q Tang, H Ma, S Xie, and M Zhang. 2019. "Regional Moisture Budget and Land‐Atmosphere Coupling over the U.S. Southern Great Plains Inferred from the ARM Long‐Term Observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124(17-18), 10.1029/2019JD030585.
Research Highlight

Tang S, C Tao, S Xie, and M Zhang. 2019. Description of the ARM Large-Scale Forcing Data from the Constrained Variational Analysis (VARANAL) Version 2. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-222.


Phillips T, S Klein, H Ma, Q Tang, S Xie, I Williams, J Santanello, D Cook, and M Torn. 2017. "Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Climate Model Simulations of Land-Atmosphere Coupling on the U.S. Southern Great Plains." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(21), doi:10.1002/2017JD027141.
Research Highlight

Zhang C and S Xie. 2017. ARM Data-Oriented Metrics and Diagnostics Package for Climate Model Evaluation Value-Added Product. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-202.

Zhu W, S Jia, and A Lv. 2017. "A time domain solution of the Modified Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (MTVDI) for continuous soil moisture monitoring." Remote Sensing of Environment, 200, 10.1016/j.rse.2017.07.032.

Zhu W, A Lu, S Jia, J Yan, and R Mahmood. 2017. "Retrievals of all-weather daytime air temperature from MODIS products." Remote Sensing of Environment, 189, 10.1016/j.rse.2016.11.011.


Berg L and P Lamb. 2016. "Surface Properties and Interactions: Coupling the Land and Atmosphere within the ARM Program." Meteorological Monographs, 57, 10.1175/AMSMONOGRAPHS-D-15-0044.1.


Klein PM, TA Bonin, JF Newman, DD Turner, PB Chilson, CE Wainwright, WG Blumberg, S Mishra, M Carney, EP Jacobsen, S Wharton, and RK Newsom. 2015. "LABLE: A Multi-Institutional, Student-Led, Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96(10), 10.1175/bams-d-13-00267.1.

Li Z, S Feng, Y Liu, W Lin, M Zhang, T Toto, AM Vogelmann, and S Endo. 2015. "Development of fine-resolution analyses and expanded large-scale forcing properties: 1. Methodology and evaluation." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120(2), 10.1002/2014jd022245.

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