smos: Surface Meteorological Observation System Instruments for SGP

The Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) mostly uses conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute, 30-minute, and 1440-minute (daily) averages of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and precipitation at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) climate research site. The SMOSs are not calibrated as systems. The sensors and the data logger (which includes the analog-to-digital converter, or A/D) are calibrated separately. All systems are installed using components that have a current calibration. SMOSs have not been installed at extended facilities located within about 10 km of existing surface meteorological stations, such as those of the Oklahoma Mesonet.

The Surface Meteorological Observation Systems are used to create climatology for each particular location, and to verify the output of numerical weather forecast and other model output. They are also used to “ground-truth” other remote sensing equipment.



  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Related Publications


Klein PM, TA Bonin, JF Newman, DD Turner, PB Chilson, CE Wainwright, WG Blumberg, S Mishra, M Carney, EP Jacobsen, S Wharton, and RK Newsom. 2015. "LABLE: A Multi-Institutional, Student-Led, Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 96(10), 10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00267.1. ONLINE.


Maseyk K, JA Berry, D Billesbach, JE Campbell, MS Torn, M Zahniser, and U Seibt. 2014. "Sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide in an agricultural field in the Southern Great Plains." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(25), 10.1073/pnas.1319132111.

Phillips TJ and SA Klein. 2014. "Land-atmosphere coupling manifested in warm-season observations on the U.S. southern great plains." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119(2), 10.1002/2013JD020492.


Segele ZT, LM Leslie, and PJ Lamb. 2013. "Weather Research and Forecasting Model simulations of extended warm-season heavy precipitation episode over the U.S. Southern Great Plains: Data assimilation and microphysics sensitivity experiments." Tellus, 65, 19599, doi:10.3402/tellusa.v65i0.19599.

de Boer G, SE Bauer, T Toto, S Menon, and AM Vogelmann. 2013. "Evaluation of aerosol-cloud interaction in the GISS ModelE using ARM observations." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 118(12), 10.1002/jgrd.50460.

Zhang Y and SA Klein. 2013. "Factors Controlling the Vertical Extent of Fair-Weather Shallow Cumulus Clouds over Land: Investigation of Diurnal-Cycle Observations Collected at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 70(4), 10.1175/JAS-D-12-0131.1.


Sun L, R Sun, XW Li, SL Liang, and RH Zhang. 2012. "Monitoring surface soil moisture status based on remotely sensed surface temperature and vegetation index information." Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 166-167, 10.1016/j.agrformet.2012.07.015.

Yang H, S Dobbie, GG Mace, A Ross, and M Quante. 2012. "GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS) cirrus cloud working group: development of an observation-based case study for model evaluation." Geoscientific Model Development, 5(3), 10.5194/gmd-5-829-2012.

Reda I, J Zeng, J Scheuch, L Hanssen, B Wilthan, D Myers, and T Stoffel. 2012. "An absolute cavity pyrgeometer to measure the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to international system of units, SI." Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 77(March 2012), 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.12.011.


Zhang Y and SA Klein. 2010. "Mechanisms Affecting the Transition from Shallow to Deep Convection over Land: Inferences from Observations of the Diurnal Cycle Collected at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site." Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 67(9), 10.1175/2010JAS3366.1.

View All Related Publications