Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

rl > Raman LidarInstrument Type(s) > Baseline • Guest

The Raman lidar (RL) is an active, ground-based, laser remote-sensing instrument that provides height- and time-resolved measurements of water-vapor mixing ratio, temperature, aerosol, and cloud optical properties. The RL operates in the ultraviolet (UV) and is sensitive to both molecular and aerosol backscatter.

The RL works by transmitting short pulses of UV laser light into the atmosphere. As the light propagates, a small fraction of the light energy is scattered back to the lidar transceiver where it is collected and recorded as a time-resolved signal. From the delay between the outgoing pulse and the backscattered signal, the instrument infers the distance to the scattering volume.

As the name implies, the RL makes use of the Raman effect in which light is inelastically scattered by atmospheric N2, O2, and H2O molecules. The ARM RL uses a number of narrow-band detection channels specifically tuned to sense the Raman backscatter from these molecules. Several other detection channels are configured to measure elastically backscattered light from atmospheric aerosol. The raw signals from these detection channels are combined and processed to yield measurements of water vapor mixing ratio, temperature, aerosol backscatter coefficient, extinction, and depolarization ratio.


  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3


Dolinar E, J Campbell, J Marquis, A Garnier, and B Karpowicz. 2022. "Novel Parameterization of Ice Cloud Effective Diameter from Collocated CALIOP-IIR and CloudSat Retrievals." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 61(7), 10.1175/JAMC-D-21-0163.1.

Chu Y, Z Wang, L Xue, M Deng, G Lin, H Xie, H Shin, W Li, G Firl, D D’Amico, D Liu, and Y Wang. 2022. "Characterizing warm atmospheric boundary layer over land by combining Raman and Doppler lidar measurements." Optics Express, 30(7), 10.1364/oe.451728. ACCEPTED.

Späth F, A Behrendt, W Brewer, D Lange, C Senff, D Turner, T Wagner, and V Wulfmeyer. 2022. "Simultaneous Observations of Surface Layer Profiles of Humidity, Temperature, and Wind using Scanning Lidar Instruments." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 127(5), e2021JD035697, 10.1029/2021JD035697.

Beamesderfer E, C Buechner, C Faiola, M Helbig, Z Sanchez‐Mejia, A Yáñez‐Serrano, Y Zhang, and A Richardson. 2022. "Advancing Cross‐Disciplinary Understanding of Land‐Atmosphere Interactions." Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 127(2), e2021JG006707, 10.1029/2021JG006707.


Dai N, R Kramer, B Soden, and T L’Ecuyer. 2021. "Evaluation of CloudSat Radiative Kernels Using ARM and CERES Observations and ERA5 Reanalysis." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(23), e2021JD034510, 10.1029/2020JD034510.

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