flask: Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes

The carbon flask collection system (FLASK) samples atmospheric carbon dioxide and other trace gases. It comprises a suitcase-mounted array of flasks, or Programmable Flask Package (PFP), and a compressor and power module, or Programmable Compressor Package (PCP), to do programmable time-interval or event-based sampling. The FLASK system is mounted on a Cessna 206 aircraft to take samples at 12 heights or positions.

A pilot display indicates sampling altitudes. At a given height, the pilot activates the sampler and atmospheric air fills the corresponding flask. Sampled PFPs are analyzed in the lab to determine gas concentrations and isotope ratios.



  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3


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Kulawik S, C O'Dell, V Payne, L Kuai, H Worden, S Biraud, C Sweeney, B Stephens, L Iraci, E Yates, and T Tanaka. 2016. "Lower-tropospheric CO2 from near-infrared ACOS-GOSAT observations." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17(8), 10.5194/acp-17-5407-2017.

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Biraud S. 2016. Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes (FLASK) Handbook . Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-181.

Hu L, SA Montzka, BR Miller, AE Andrews, JB Miller, SJ Lehman, C Sweeney, SM Miller, K Thoning, C Siso, EL Atlas, DR Blake, J de Gouw, JB Gilman, G Dutton, JW Elkins, B Hall, H Chen, ML Fischer, ME Mountain, T Nehrkorn, SC Biraud, FL Moore, and P Tans. 2016. "Continued emissions of carbon tetrachloride from the United States nearly two decades after its phaseout for dispersive uses." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(11), 10.1073/pnas.1522284113.


Biraud S. 2015. ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements VI (ACME VI) Science Plan. Ed. by Robert Stafford, DOE ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-15-047.

Tadić J, V Ilić, and S Biraud. 2015. "Examination of geostatistical and machine-learning techniques as interpolators in anisotropic atmospheric environments." Atmospheric Environment, 111, 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.03.063.

Sweeney C, A Karion, S Wolter, T Newberger, D Guenther, JA Higgs, AE Andrews, PM Lang, D Neff, E Dlugokencky, JB Miller, SA Montzka, BR Miller, KA Masarie, SC Biraud, PC Novelli, M Crotwell, AM Crotwell, K Thoning, and PP Tans. 2015. "Seasonal climatology of CO2 across North America from aircraft measurements in the NOAA/ESRL Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120(10), 10.1002/2014jd022591.

Biraud S, M Torn, C Miller, A Sedlacek, C Sweeney, S Wofsy, G de Boer, M Shupe, and C Kuang. 2015. ARM-ACME V: ARM Airborne Carbon Measurements V on the North Slope of Alaska Science and Implementation Plan. Ed. by Robert Stafford, DOE ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-15-032.

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