csapr: C-Band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar

The C-Band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar is a dual-polarization Doppler weather radar that operates in a simultaneous transmit and receive (STAR) mode, splitting the transmit signal so that power is transmitted on both horizontal and vertical polarizations at the same time. The C-SAPR can also transmit on a single polarization (horizontal or vertical) and measure linear depolarization ratio (LDR).
In addition to the first three Doppler moments (reflectivity, radial velocity, and spectra width), the C-SAPR also provides differential reflectivity, correlation coefficient, and specific differential phase. The dual-polarization variables enable the provision of rainfall rate estimates and identification of precipitation types.



  • Fixed
  • AMF1
  • AMF2
  • AMF3

Related Publications


Kollias P, EE Clothiaux, K Lamer, N Bharadwaj, JM Comstock, and A Matthews. 2018. ARM Radar Engineering and Radar Science 2017 6th Workshop Report. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-212.

Schrom R and M Kumjian. 2018. "Bulk-Density Representations of Branched Planar Ice Crystals: Errors in the Polarimetric Radar Variables." Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 57(2), doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0114.1.

Hoover K, J Mecikalski, TJ Lang, X Li, T Castillo, and T Chronis. 2018. "Use of an End-to-End-Simulator to analyze CYGNSS." Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 35(1), 10.1175/JTECH-D-17-0036.1.


Goss H. 2017. Cloud, Aerosol, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) Backgrounder. Ed. by Rolanda Jundt, ARM Climate Research Facility. DOE/SC-ARM-17-032.

Fan J, B Han, A Varble, H Morrison, K North, P Kollias, B Chen, X Dong, S Giangrande, A Khain, Y Lin, E Mansell, J Milbrandt, R Stenz, G Thompson, and Y Wang. 2017. "Cloud-resolving model intercomparison of an MC3E squall line case: Part I-Convective updrafts." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 122(17), 10.1002/2017JD026622.

Fridlind A, X Li, D Wu, M van Lier-Walqui, A Ackerman, W Tao, G McFarquhar, W Wu, X Dong, J Wang, A Ryzhkov, P Zhang, M Poellot, A Neumann, and J Tomlinson. 2017. "Derivation of aerosol profiles for MC3E convection studies and use in simulations of the 20 May squall line case." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17(9), 10.5194/acp-17-5947-2017.


Helmus JJ and SM Collis. 2016. "The Python ARM Radar Toolkit (Py-ART), a Library for Working with Weather Radar Data in the Python Programming Language." Journal of Open Research Software, 4(1), 10.5334/jors.119.

Giangrande SE, T Toto, A Bansemer, MR Kumjian, S Mishra, and A Ryzkhov. 2016. "Insights into riming and aggregation processes as revealed by aircraft, radar, and disdrometer observations for a 27 April 2011 widespread precipitation event." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121(10), 10.1002/2015jd024537. ONLINE.

van Lier-Walqui M, AM Fridlind, AS Ackerman, S Collis, J Helmus, DR MacGorman, K North, P Kollias, and DJ Posselt. 2016. "On polarimetric radar signatures of deep convection for model evaluation: Columns of specific differential phase observed during MC3E." Monthly Weather Review, 144(2), 10.1175/mwr-d-15-0100.1. ONLINE.


Mechem DB, SE Giangrande, CS Wittman, P Borque, T Toto, and P Kollias. 2015. "Insights from modeling and observational evaluation of a precipitating continental cumulus event observed during the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment field campaign." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120(5), 10.1002/2014jd022255.

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