Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA)
1 June 2017 - 28 February 2018
Lead Scientist: Jian Wang
With their extensive coverage, low clouds greatly influence global climate, but they are poorly represented in global climate models (GCMs). The response of low clouds to changes in atmospheric greenhouse gases and aerosols remains the major source of uncertainty in climate simulations. The poor representations of low clouds in GCMs are partly due to inadequate observations of their microphysical and macrophysical structures, radiative effects, and the associated aerosol distribution and budget in regions where the aerosol impact is the greatest. The Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) is a region with persistent but diverse subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds. Their albedo and precipitation are highly susceptible to perturbations in aerosol properties. Boundary layer aerosol in the ENA region is influenced by a variety of sources, leading to strong variations in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and aerosol optical properties. The ARM Climate Research Facility has a fixed ENA atmospheric observatory on Graciosa Island in the Azores, providing invaluable information on MBL aerosols and low clouds. At the same time, the vertical structures and horizontal variabilities of aerosols, trace gases, clouds, drizzle, and atmospheric thermodynamics are critically needed for understanding and quantifying the budget of MBL aerosols, the radiative properties, precipitation efficiency, and life cycle of MBL clouds, and the cloud response to aerosol perturbations. Much of this data can be obtained only through aircraft-based measurements. In addition, the interconnected aerosol and cloud processes are best investigated by a study involving simultaneous in situ aerosol, cloud, and thermodynamic measurements. In situ measurements are also necessary for validating and improving ground-based retrieval algorithms at the ENA observatory. The Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA) field campaign was motivated by the need for comprehensive in situ characterizations of boundary layer structure, and associated vertical distributions and horizontal variabilities of low clouds and aerosols over the Azores. The ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream-159 (G-1) research aircraft flew from Terceira Island in the Azores during two intensive operational periods: early summer 2017 (June to July) and winter 2018 (January to February). Deployments during both seasons allowed for examination of key aerosol and cloud processes under a variety of representative meteorological and cloud conditions. The science themes for ACE-ENA included:
- the budget of MBL CCN and its seasonal variation
- effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation
- cloud microphysical and macrophysical structures, and entrainment mixing
- advancing retrievals of turbulence, clouds, and drizzle
- model evaluation and process studies.
A key advantage of the deployments is the strong synergy between the measurements aboard the G-1 and the routine measurements at the ENA observatory, including state-of-the-art profiling and scanning radars. The three-dimensional cloud structures provided by the scanning radars will put the detailed in situ measurements into mesoscale and cloud life cycle contexts. On the other hand, high-quality in situ measurements will enable validation and improvements of ground-based retrieval algorithms at the ENA observatory, leading to high-quality and statistically robust data sets from the routine measurements. The deployments, combined with the routine measurements at the ENA site, will have a long-lasting impact on the research and modeling of low clouds and aerosols in the remote marine environment. Operational Periods: --2017.06.01-2017.07.31 --2018.01.01-2018.02.28
|Eduardo Azevedo||Mary Gilles||Edward Luke|
|Christopher Bretherton||Anne Jefferson||Allison McComiskey|
|Duli Chand||Michael Jensen||Fan Mei|
|J.-Y. Christine Chiu||Pavlos Kollias||Mark Miller|
|Xiquan Dong||Chongai Kuang||Arthur Sedlacek|
|Jerome Fast||Alexander Laskin||Raymond Shaw|
|Andrew Gettelman||Ernie Lewis||Robert Wood|
|Steven Ghan||Xiaohong Liu|
|Scott Giangrande||Yangang Liu|
Zhang Z, Q Song, D Mechem, V Larson, J Wang, Y Liu, M Witte, X Dong, and P Wu. 2021. "Vertical dependence of horizontal variation of cloud microphysics: observations from the ACE-ENA field campaign and implications for warm-rain simulation in climate models." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 21(4), 10.5194/acp-21-3103-2021.
Dong X, P Wu, Y Wang, B Xi, and Y Huang. 2021. "New Observational Constraints on Warm Rain Processes and their Climate Implications." Geophysical Research Letters, 48(6), e2020GL091836, 10.1029/2020GL091836.
Desai N, Y Liu, S Glienke, R Shaw, C Lu, J Wang, and S Gao. 2021. "Vertical variation of turbulent entrainment mixing processes in marine stratocumulus clouds using high resolution digital holography." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 126(7), e2020JD033527, 10.1029/2020JD033527.
Dorsey KS, R Jundt, CB Ireland, MR Wasem, RA Stafford, and A Hunzinger. 2021. 2020 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Annual Report. Ed. by Kathryn Dorsey, U.S. Department of Energy. DOE/SC-ARM-20-020.
Siebert H, K Szodry, U Egerer, B Wehner, S Henning, K Chevalier, J Lückerath, O Welz, K Weinhold, F Lauermann, M Gottschalk, A Ehrlich, M Wendisch, P Fialho, G Roberts, N Allwayin, S Schum, R Shaw, C Mazzoleni, L Mazzoleni, J Nowak, S Malinowski, K Karpinska, W Kumala, D Czyzewska, E Luke, P Kollias, R Wood, and J Mellado. 2021. "Observations of Aerosol, Cloud, Turbulence, and Radiation Properties at the Top of the Marine Boundary Layer over the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean: The ACORES Campaign." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 102(1), 10.1175/BAMS-D-19-0191.1.
Zheng G, Y Wang, R Wood, M Jensen, C Kuang, I Mccoy, A Matthews, F Mei, J Tomlinson, J Shilling, M Zawadowicz, E Crosbie, R Moore, L Ziemba, M Andreae, and J Wang. 2021. "New particle formation in the remote marine boundary layer." Nature Communications, 12(1), 10.1038/s41467-020-20773-1.
Wu P, X Dong, and B Xi. 2020. "A Climatology of Marine Boundary Layer Cloud and Drizzle Properties Derived from Ground-Based Observations over the Azores." Journal of Climate, 33(23), 10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0272.1.
Wang Y, X Zheng, X Dong, B Xi, P Wu, T Logan, and Y Yung. 2020. "Impacts of long-range transport of aerosols on marine-boundary-layer clouds in the eastern North Atlantic." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(23), 10.5194/acp-20-14741-2020.
Chiu J, C Yang, P van Leeuwen, G Feingold, R Wood, Y Blanchard, F Mei, and J Wang. 2020. "Observational constraints on warm cloud microphysical processes using machine learning and optimization techniques." Geophysical Research Letters, 48(2), e2020GL091236, 10.1029/2020GL091236.
Zheng G, C Kuang, J Uin, T Watson, and J Wang. 2020. "Large contribution of organics to condensational growth and formation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the remote marine boundary layer." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20(21), 10.5194/acp-20-12515-2020.
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Campaign Data Sets
|IOP Participant||Data Source Name||Final Data|
|Alexander Laskin||Time Resolved Aerosol Collectors- T0 Site||Order Data|
|Chuck Long||Radiometer Suite (Tilt Corrected Data)||Order Data|
|Alyssa Matthews||Ambient Winds- AIMMS||Order Data|
|Alyssa Matthews||G-1||Order Data|
|Alyssa Matthews||High Volume Precipitation Spectrometer - Images||Order Data|
|Alyssa Matthews||Water Content Monitor||Order Data|
|Fan Mei||2DS Particle Imaging Probe||Order Data|
|Fan Mei||Condensation Particle Counters - G1 Aircraft||Order Data|
|Fan Mei||Fast Cloud Droplet Probe (FCDP)||Order Data|
|Fan Mei||High Volume Precip Spectrometer||Order Data|
|Fan Mei||Merged-2dsfcdphvps||Order Data|
|Fan Mei||Meteorology/State/Position Parameters||Order Data|
|Mikhail Pekour||Aerodynamic Part Sizer||Order Data|
|Mikhail Pekour||Open Path Tunable Diode Laser Hygrometer||Order Data|
|Mikhail Pekour||Optical Particle Counter - Counterflow Virtual Impactor||Order Data|
|Mikhail Pekour||Optical Particle Counter - Isokinetic||Order Data|
|Raymond Shaw||Holographic Detector for Clouds||Order Data|
|John Shilling||High- Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer||Order Data|
|John Shilling||Photon Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer||Order Data|
|Stephen Springston||Carbon Monoxide Analyzer aboard Aircraft_IOPI||Order Data|
|Stephen Springston||Carbon Monoxide Analyzer aboard Aircraft_IOPII||Order Data|
|Stephen Springston||Ozone Monitor aboard Aircraft_IOPI||Order Data|
|Stephen Springston||Ozone Monitor aboard Aircraft_IOPII||Order Data|
|Amy Sullivan||Particle-Into-Liquid Sampler (PILS)||Order Data|
|Jason Tomlinson||Cloud Aerosol Precip Spectrometer(CAPS)/Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP)||Order Data|
|Jason Tomlinson||Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer||Order Data|
|Jason Tomlinson||Liquid Water Content (pvm-100a probe, SEA WCM-2000)||Order Data|
|Jason Tomlinson||Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer||Order Data|
|Janek Uin||Aerosol Monitoring System- Ground||Order Data|
|Janek Uin||Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer||Order Data|
|Jian Wang||Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer||Order Data|
|Jian Wang||Nano-Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS)||Order Data|
|Jian Wang||Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer||Order Data|