Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility US Department of Energy

Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE)

24 April 2016 - 23 September 2016

Lead Scientist: Jerome Fast

Observatory: AAF, SGP

Cumulus convection is an important component in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle over the southern Great Plains and many other regions of the world, particularly during the summertime growing season when intense turbulence induced by surface radiation couples the land surface to clouds. Current convective cloud parameterizations contain uncertainties resulting partly from insufficient coincident data that couple cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to inhomogeneities in boundary layer and aerosol properties.

The Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) field campaign was designed to provide a detailed set of measurements needed for a more complete understanding of the life cycle of shallow clouds by coupling cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to land surface properties, ecosystems, and aerosols. HI-SCALE consisted of two four-week intensive observational periods, one in the spring and the other in the late summer to take advantage of different stages and distribution of greenness for various vegetation near the ARM Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains Megasite (SGP), as well as aerosol properties that vary during the growing season. Most of the instruments were deployed on the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream-159 (G-1) aircraft, including those that measure atmospheric turbulence, cloud water content and drop size distributions, aerosol precursor gases, aerosol chemical composition and size distributions, and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. Aerosol microphysical property measurements supplemented routine ARM aerosol measurements made at the surface. The G-1 completed transects over the SGP Central Facility at multiple altitudes within the boundary layer, and within and above clouds.

The extensive measurements collected during the campaign will be coupled with routine ARM SGP measurements as well as large-eddy simulation (LES), cloud-resolving, and cloud-system-resolving models. Through integrated analyses and modeling studies, scientists will be able to quantify the influence of inhomogeneities in land use, vegetation, soil moisture, convective eddies, and aerosol properties on the evolution of shallow clouds. This includes the feedbacks of clouds on the downwelling radiation reaching the surface and associated changes in the surface heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes, and on aerosol photochemical processes.

Findings from the data analyses and modeling studies will be used to develop improved parameterizations for the next generation of climate models that are expected to have grid spacing of approximately 10 kilometers. In addition, the aircraft and surface measurements provided critical in situ measurements of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics and dynamics, and aerosol properties that can be used to evaluate the new routine LES modeling activity at the SGP site and various current and new ARM retrievals.

Campaign periods: 2016.04.24--2016.05.21 2016.08.28--2016.09.23


Larry Berg Maoyi Huang James Smith
Jiwen Fan Chongai Kuang Joel Thornton
Zhe Feng Alexander Laskin David Turner
Pierre Gentine Ryan Moffet Jian Wang
Mary Gilles Arthur Sedlacek Alla Zelenyuk-Imre
Alex Guenther John Shilling
Samson Hagos Manishkumar Shrivastava


Uin J and L Goldberger. 2020. Ultra-High-Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Aboard Aircraft (UHSAS-AIR) Instrument Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-250.

Goldberger L. 2020. Cloud, Aerosol, and Precipitation Spectrometer Instrument Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-246.

Goldberger L. 2020. Cloud, Aerosol, and Precipitation Spectrometer Instrument Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-246.

Goldberger L. 2020. Cloud, Aerosol, and Precipitation Spectrometer Instrument Handbook. Ed. by Robert Stafford, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-246.

Berg L, C Long, E Kassianov, D Chand, S Tai, Z Yang, L Riihimaki, S Biraud, J Tagestad, A Matthews, A Mendoza, F Mei, J Tomlinson, and J Fast. 2020. "Fine Scale Variability of Observed and Simulated Surface Albedo over the Southern Great Plains." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125(7), e2019JD030559, 10.1029/2019JD030559.

Goss HB, KS Dorsey, CB Ireland, MR Wasem, RA Stafford, and R Jundt. 2020. 2019 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Annual Report. Ed. by Kathryn Dorsey, ARM user facility. DOE/SC-ARM-19-032.

Lawler M, D Draper, and J Smith. 2020. "Atmospheric fungal nanoparticle bursts." Science Advances, 6(3), 10.1126/sciadv.aax9051.
Research Highlight


Fast J, L Berg, Z Feng, F Mei, R Newsom, K Sakaguchi, and H Xiao. 2019. "The Impact of Variable Land‐Atmosphere Coupling on Convective Cloud Populations Observed During the 2016 HI‐SCALE Field Campaign." Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 11(8), 10.1029/2019MS001727.
Research Highlight

DeRieux W, P Lakey, Y Chu, C Chan, H Glicker, J Smith, A Zuend, and M Shiraiwa. 2019. "Effects of Phase State and Phase Separation on Dimethylamine Uptake of Ammonium Sulfate and Ammonium Sulfate–Sucrose Mixed Particles." ACS Earth and Space Chemistry, 3(7), 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00142.


Fast J, L Berg, L Alexander, D Bell, E D’Ambro, J Hubbe, C Kuang, J Liu, C Long, A Matthews, F Mei, R Newsom, M Pekour, T Pinterich, B Schmid, S Schobesberger, J Shilling, J Smith, S Springston, K Suski, J Thornton, J Tomlinson, J Wang, H Xiao, and A Zelenyuk. 2018. "Overview of the HI-SCALE Field Campaign: A New Perspective on Shallow Convective Clouds." Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 100(5), 10.1175/BAMS-D-18-0030.1.
Research Highlight

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Campaign Data Sets

IOP Participant Data Source Name Final Data
Eleanor Browne Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer Order Data
Susanne Hering Water Condensation Particle Counter Order Data
John Hubbe Aircraft-Integrated Meteorological Measurement System Order Data
Andrew Kalukin Calibration Objects - Lat/Long Order Data
Andrew Kalukin Data Logger and Radiometer Order Data
Andrew Kalukin Imaging Sensors Order Data
Michael Lawler Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer Order Data
Chuck Long Radiometer Suite (Tilt Corrected Data) Order Data
Alyssa Matthews 2DS Probe - Images Order Data
Alyssa Matthews Cloud Droplet Probe Order Data
Alyssa Matthews High Volume Precipitation Spectrometer - Images Order Data
Alyssa Matthews Video Order Data
Alyssa Matthews Water Content Monitor Order Data
Fan Mei 2DS Particle Imaging Probe Order Data
Fan Mei Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter Order Data
Fan Mei Condensation Particle Counter Order Data
Fan Mei Condensation Particle Counter (CVI inlet) Order Data
Fan Mei Fast Cloud Droplet Probe (FCDP) Order Data
Fan Mei High Volume Precipitation Spectrometer Order Data
Fan Mei Meteorology/State/Position Parameters Order Data
Mikhail Pekour Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI) Order Data
Mikhail Pekour Optical Particle Counter - Counterflow Virtual Impactor Order Data
Mikhail Pekour Optical Particle Counter - Isokinetic Order Data
Siegfried Schobesberger Time of Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer Order Data
John Shilling Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Order Data
John Shilling NO/NOx Analyzer Order Data
John Shilling Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer Order Data
John Shilling Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (Ground) Order Data
Stephen Springston Trace Gases Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Cloud Imaging Probe Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Cloud Spectrometer and Impactor (CSI) Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS) Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Order Data
Jason Tomlinson Ultra High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Order Data
Jian Wang Fast Integrated Mobility Spectrometer Order Data
Alla Zelenyuk-Imre Mini Single Particle Mass Spectrometer Order Data
Alla Zelenyuk-Imre Single Particle Mass Spectrometer (Ground) Order Data

SGP Data Sources

Name Full Name Browse Data
ABRFC Arkansas-Red Basin River Forecast Center Browse Data
ACSM Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor Browse Data
AERI Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Browse Data
AERINF AERI Noise Filtered Browse Data
AERIOE AERIoe Thermodynamic Profile and Cloud Retrieval Browse Data
AERIPROF AERI Profiles of Water Vapor and Temperature Browse Data
AEROSOLBE Aerosol Best Estimate Browse Data
AIP Aerosol Intensive Properties Browse Data
AMC Ameriflux Measurement Component Browse Data
AOP Aerosol Optical Properties Browse Data
AOS Aerosol Observing System Browse Data
AOSMET Meteorological Measurements associated with the Aerosol Observing System Browse Data
APS Aerodynamic Particle Sizer Browse Data
ARMBE ARM Best Estimate Data Products Browse Data
ASSIST Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology Browse Data
BAEBBR Best-Estimate Fluxes From EBBR Measurements and Bulk Aerodynamics Calculations Browse Data
BEFLUX Best-Estimate Radiative Flux Browse Data
BRS Broadband Radiometer Station Browse Data
CAPS-PMEX Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Extinction Monitor Browse Data
CCN Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter Browse Data
CCN-AIR Cloud Condensation Nuclei Particle Counter aboard Aircraft Browse Data
CEIL Ceilometer Browse Data
CEILPBLHT Boundary-layer height data with CEIL Browse Data
CFH Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer Browse Data
CLAP Continuous Light Absorption Photometer Browse Data
CLDTYPE Cloud Type Classification Browse Data
CMH-AIR Chilled Mirror Hygrometer aboard aircraft Browse Data
CO2FLX Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems Browse Data
CO-AIR Carbon Monoxide- Airborne Browse Data
CO-ANALYZER Carbon Monoxide Analyzer Browse Data
CPC Condensation Particle Counter Browse Data
CPC-AIR Condensation particle counter aboard aircraft Browse Data
CSAPR C-Band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar Browse Data
CSPHOT Cimel Sunphotometer Browse Data
DISDROMETER Impact Disdrometer Browse Data
DL Doppler Lidar Browse Data
DLPROF Doppler Lidar Profiles Browse Data
EBBR Energy Balance Bowen Ratio Station Browse Data
ECMWFDIAG European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Diagnostic Analyses Browse Data
ECOR Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Browse Data
FLASK Flask Samplers for Carbon Cycle Gases and Isotopes Browse Data
GOES Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites Browse Data
GUSTPROBE-AIR Gust Probe aboard aircraft Browse Data
HK-AIR House Keeping Instruments aboard Aircraft Browse Data
HTDMA Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Browse Data
INLETCVI-AIR Inlet for Counterflow Virtual Impactor aboard aircraft Browse Data
INLETISOK-AIR Isokinetic Inlet aboard aircraft Browse Data
INTERPSONDE Interpolated Sonde Browse Data
IRSI Infra-Red Sky Imager Browse Data
IRT Infrared Thermometer Browse Data
KASACR Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data
KAZR Ka ARM Zenith Radar Browse Data
KAZRARSCL Active Remote Sensing of CLouds (ARSCL) product using Ka-band ARM Zenith Radars Browse Data
KAZRCOR KAZR Corrected Data Browse Data
LASSO LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) Browse Data
LDIS Laser Disdrometer Browse Data
LDQUANTS Laser disdrometer VAP for quality-controlled measurements, using PyDSD Browse Data
LSSONDE Microwave Radiometer-Scaled Sonde Profiles Browse Data
MAWS Automatic Weather Station Browse Data
MERGESONDE Merged Sounding Browse Data
MET Surface Meteorological Instrumentation Browse Data
MFR Multifilter Radiometer Browse Data
MFRSR Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer Browse Data
MFRSRCLDOD Cloud Optical Properties from MFRSR Using Min Algorithm Browse Data
MMCR Millimeter Wavelength Cloud Radar Browse Data
MPL Micropulse Lidar Browse Data
MPLCMASK Cloud mask from Micropulse Lidar Browse Data
MWR Microwave Radiometer Browse Data
MWR3C Microwave Radiometer, 3 Channel Browse Data
MWRHF Microwave Radiometer - High Frequency Browse Data
MWRRET MWR Retrievals Browse Data
MWRRETV2 MWR Retrievals with MWRRET Version 2 Browse Data
NAV-AIR Navigational Location, Motion, and Attitude for Airborne Platforms Browse Data
NEPHELOMETER Nephelometer Browse Data
NFOV Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer Browse Data
NIMFR Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer Browse Data
NOAACRN NOAA Climate Reference Network Browse Data
NWSUPA National Weather Service Upper Air Measurements Browse Data
OKM Oklahoma Mesonet Browse Data
OKMSOIL Oklahoma Mesonet Soil Moisture Browse Data
ORG Optical Rain Gauge Browse Data
OZONE Ozone Monitor Browse Data
OZONE-AIR Ozone Monitor aboard Aircraft Browse Data
PBLHT Planetary Boundary Layer Height Browse Data
PCASP-AIR Passive cavity aerosol spectrometer aboard aircraft Browse Data
PGS Precision Carbon Dioxide Mixing Ratio System Browse Data
PGSISO Precision Gas System Isotope Analyzer Browse Data
PSAP Particle Soot Absorption Photometer Browse Data
QCECOR Quality Controlled Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement Browse Data
QCRAD Data Quality Assessment for ARM Radiation Data Browse Data
RADFLUXANAL Radiative Flux Analysis Browse Data
RAIN Rain Gauge Browse Data
RAP Rapid Refresh Model Data Browse Data
RL Raman Lidar Browse Data
RLPROF Raman LIDAR Vertical Profiles Browse Data
RLPROF-FEX Raman Lidar Vertical Profiles Feature Detection and Extinction Browse Data
RLPROFMR Raman Lidar Mixing Ratio Browse Data
RLPROFTEMP Raman Lidar Temperature VAP Browse Data
RWP Radar Wind Profiler Browse Data
SACRADVVAD SACR Advance Velocity Azimuth Display Browse Data
SAPRVAD Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar (SAPR) Velocity Azimuth Display Browse Data
SASHE Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Hemispheric Browse Data
SASZE Shortwave Array Spectroradiometer-Zenith Browse Data
SEBS Surface Energy Balance System Browse Data
SFCCLDGRID Surface Cloud Grid Browse Data
SHALLOWCUMULUS Fair-Weather Shallow Cumulus Identification Browse Data
SIRS Solar and Infrared Radiation Station Browse Data
SMPS Scanning mobility particle sizer Browse Data
SO2 Sulfur Dioxide Monitor Browse Data
SO2-AIR Sulfur Dioxide Monitor aboard Aircraft Browse Data
SODAR Mini Sound Detection and Ranging Browse Data
SONDE Balloon-Borne Sounding System Browse Data
SONDEADJUST Sonde Adjust Browse Data
SONDEGRID Gridded Sonde VAP Product Browse Data
STAMP Soil Temperature and Moisture Profiles Browse Data
SUOMIGPS SuomiNet Global Positioning System Browse Data
SURFSPECALB Surface Spectral Albedo Browse Data
SWATS Soil Water and Temperature System Browse Data
SWS Shortwave Spectroradiometer Browse Data
TAP Tricolor Absorption Photometer Browse Data
TBS Tethered Balloon System Browse Data
TSI Total Sky Imager Browse Data
TWR Facility-specific multi-level Meteorological Instrumentation Browse Data
TWRMR Tower Water-Vapor Mixing Ratio Browse Data
UHSAS Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Browse Data
UHSAS-AIR Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer aboard aircraft Browse Data
USDARAD US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Radiation Monitoring Data Browse Data
VARANAL Constrained Variational Analysis Browse Data
VDIS Video Disdrometer Browse Data
VISST Minnis Cloud Products Using Visst Algorithm Browse Data
WACR W-Band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data
WPDNGPS Wind Profiler Demonstration Network GPS Browse Data
WSACR W-band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Browse Data
XSAPR X-Band Scanning ARM Precipitation Radar Browse Data