AMF2 Baseline Instruments
|View the list of instruments used at each deployment.
Instrumentation for AMF2 is, with a few notable exceptions, the same as used by AMF1. The AMF2 system was designed for marine or shipboard deployments. Generally, except as noted, the AMF2 instruments are marine-capable.
Available Instrumentation for Land or Ocean-Based Deployments
Aerosol Observing System (AOS)
Capabilities in the AMF2 AOS include:
- Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CCN100 [single column])
Measures the concentrations of CCNs as a function of supersaturation.
- Ambient Nephelometer
Measures the light scattering coefficient of aerosols at ambient relative humidity.
- f(RH)/Wet Nephelometer (Humidigraph)
Measures the light scattering coefficient of aerosols over a range of relative humidities.
- Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) model 3772 (CPC > 10 nm)
Determines the concentration of aerosol particles down to an aerodynamic diameter of 10 nm.
- Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA)
Measures the aerosol (size, mass, or number) distribution as a function of relative humidity.
- Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP), 3 Wavelength
Measures the optical transmittance of particles deposited on a filter at three wavelengths.
Measures ozone concentration (range) by absorption.
- Local Meteorology
Vaisala WXT520 mounted on top of AOS stack. Measures wind speed and direction, temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure and precipitation.
- Micropulse Lidar (MPL)
- Microwave Radiometer (MWR)
- Microwave Radiometer, 3-channel (MWR3C)
- High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL)
- Total Sky Imager (TSI)
For land deployments the TSI works similar to other land-based sites. For ocean deployments the TSI requires data from the inertial navigation system in order to correct the mirror position for the course of the ship. Data from the inertial navigation system are provided once a second to make this correction.
- Scanning W-band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar (SWACR) for land-based deployments
- Marine W-band (95 GHz) ARM Cloud Radar (M-WACR) for ocean-based deployments. This radar is mounted vertically on the RPH stabilized platform.
- Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (KA-SACR) Dual-frequency (X-Ka) scanning cloud radar.
- X-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar (X-SACR)
Dual-frequency (X-Ka) scanning cloud radars for the AMF2 operate at X and Ka bands. For land-based deployments a smaller pedestal is mounted on the roof of a 20-foot sea container. For ocean-based deployments a larger, more robust pedestal is required. The larger pedestal will not mount to the roof of the container. Therefore, deck space will be required along with possible deck modification for the increased weight and shear of the system.
- Ka-Band ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR), formerly known as the Millimeter-Wavelength Cloud Radar (MMCR)
- Vaisala Ceilometer (VCEIL)
- Radar Wind Profiler at high frequency (RWP)
Land-based deployments in the United States will include a standard 915 MHz wind profiler.
- Beam Steerable Radar Wind Profiler (BSRWP)
For ship-based and foreign deployments, a 1290 MHz wind profiler is currently under development. The 1290 MHz wind profiler has beam steering capabilities to correct for ship motion.
- Marine-Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI)
The Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) measures the absolute thermal infrared spectral radiance emitted by the atmosphere down to the instrument, to high accuracy. The marine version (M-AERI) has additional functionality to observe off-zenith scenes and measure surface temperature and emissivity (e.g. ocean skin temperature).
- Mobile Aerosol Observing System. The Mobile Aerosol Observing System is an instrument suite available for deployments with either ARM Mobile Facility and/or the ARM fixed sites and capable of being deployed independently. Availability must be determined before it should be included in proposals to use the AMF2.
- Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)
- Upwelling Radiation (GNDRAD)
- Downwelling Radiation (SKYRAD)
- Eddy Correlation System (ECOR)
- Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS)
- Video Disdrometer (VDIS), 2-Dimensional
- Rain Gauges
- Meteorological Instrumentation at AMF (MET)
- Stabilized platforms
Two stable tables are available. The first table corrects for roll, pitch, and heave (RPH) and is generally used as a mount for the M-WACR. It is capable of handling loads up to 1000 lbs. The second table corrects for roll, pitch, and yaw (RPY) and is capable of handling loads up to 500 lbs.
- Inertial Navigation System (SeaNav)
An IXBLUE Hydrins III GPS (with IXSEA INS technology) aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) provides high accuracy motion data in three translational frames and three rotational frames of reference: surge, sway, and heave; and roll, pitch, and yaw. (Until December 2012 the program operated the Kearfott SEANAV model KN-5051-G. This system provided high accuracy motion data in three translational frames and three rotational frames of reference: surge, sway, and heave; and roll, pitch, and yaw.)
- Marine Meteorological Instrumentation (MarineMET)
To provide accurate wind measurements, the roll, pitch, and yaw rotations (as well as ship speed and direction) will be incorporated into the datastream and will be used in a post-processing step approximately once per hour. Optical sensors and/or siphon rain gauges will measure precipitation for AMF2. Up to two optical rain gauges and present weather detectors are available to account for sea spray contamination. There are two WXT520 multi-parameter weather sensors along with HMP-155 T/RH probes. Each ship deployment can be unique with respect to mounting, airflow and exposure. Reasonable attempts will be made to ensure that the sensors and data are representative of the surface meteorology.
- Bulk Aerodynamic Fluxes (BAF)
The BAF is a new ARM measurement (although similar calculations are made in the BAEBBR VAP to correct EBBR calculations when the Bowen ratio is near -1). Aerodynamic fluxes will be measured using wind speed, wind direction, and temperature data from the MET system, but at heights appropriate for the bulk aerodynamic calculations. Sea surface temperature and downwelling radiation data are also necessary. Because merging of multiple datastreams is required for the BAF calculations, these fluxes will be calculated in a post-processing step.
- Ocean Temperature
Measurement of ocean surface temperature is made using the infrared thermometers for sea surface temperature (IRTSST). To measure ocean skin temperature remotely, two IRTs will be mounted orthogonally to each other, one pointed up at 45 degrees (estimates sky radiation reflected from the ocean surface) and one pointed down toward the ocean surface at a 45-degree angle. The sea surface temperature will be calculated in a post-processing step.
- Portable Radiation Measurement Package (PRP2) & Sun Pyranometer (SPN)
The PRP2 is an instrument that allows for the relaxation of some stability requirements of a ship-based deployment. It consists of an unshaded PSP and PIR along with a Fast Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (FRSR), similar to the ARM-standard multifilter rotating shadow band radiometer and a Sun Pyrometer. A second PRP2 is available for deployment in case of shading issues with ship infrastructure. The second PRP2 only consists of an unshaded PSP and PIR along with a Sun Pyranometer (SPN).
Cimel Sunphotometer (CSPHOT)
For land deployments the CSPHOT works similar to other fixed land-based sites. For ocean deployments the CSPHOT sensor is put in a zenith-only mode. No scanning of other sectors of the sky is provided. Other technical issues for using the CSPHOT while at sea involve changing the latitude/longitude within the sensor if the ship track is exceptionally long.