AMF2 Baseline Instruments

Instrument Suites
View the list of instruments used at each deployment.

Instrumentation for AMF2 is, with a few notable exceptions, the same as used by AMF1. The AMF2 system was designed for marine or shipboard deployments. Generally, except as noted, the AMF2 instruments are marine-capable.

Available Instrumentation for Land or Ocean-Based Deployments

Aerosols

Aerosol Observing System (AOS)
Capabilities in the AMF2 AOS include:

    Cimel Sunphotometer (CSPHOT)
    For land deployments the CSPHOT works similar to other fixed land-based sites. For ocean deployments the CSPHOT sensor is put in a zenith-only mode. No scanning of other sectors of the sky is provided. Other technical issues for using the CSPHOT while at sea involve changing the latitude/longitude within the sensor if the ship track is exceptionally long.

    Atmospheric Profiling

    Clouds

    Radiometers

    Available Instrumentation for Land-Based Deployments Only

    Aerosols

    • Mobile Aerosol Observing System. The Mobile Aerosol Observing System is an instrument suite available for deployments with either ARM Mobile Facility and/or the ARM fixed sites and capable of being deployed independently. Availability must be determined before it should be included in proposals to use the AMF2.

    Radiometers

    Surface Meteorology

    Available Instrumentation for Ocean-Based Deployments Only

    Stabilized Platforms

    • Stabilized platforms
      Two stable tables are available. The first table corrects for roll, pitch, and heave (RPH) and is generally used as a mount for the M-WACR. It is capable of handling loads up to 1000 lbs. The second table corrects for roll, pitch, and yaw (RPY) and is capable of handling loads up to 500 lbs.

    Inertial Navigation

    • Inertial Navigation System (SeaNav)
      An IXBLUE Hydrins III GPS (with IXSEA INS technology) aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) provides high accuracy motion data in three translational frames and three rotational frames of reference: surge, sway, and heave; and roll, pitch, and yaw. (Until December 2012 the program operated the Kearfott SEANAV model KN-5051-G. This system provided high accuracy motion data in three translational frames and three rotational frames of reference: surge, sway, and heave; and roll, pitch, and yaw.)

    Ocean Meteorology

    • Marine Meteorological Instrumentation (MarineMET)
      To provide accurate wind measurements, the roll, pitch, and yaw rotations (as well as ship speed and direction) will be incorporated into the datastream and will be used in a post-processing step approximately once per hour. Optical sensors and/or siphon rain gauges will measure precipitation for AMF2. Up to two optical rain gauges and present weather detectors are available to account for sea spray contamination. There are two WXT520 multi-parameter weather sensors along with HMP-155 T/RH probes. Each ship deployment can be unique with respect to mounting, airflow and exposure. Reasonable attempts will be made to ensure that the sensors and data are representative of the surface meteorology.
    • Bulk Aerodynamic Fluxes (BAF)
      The BAF is a new ARM measurement (although similar calculations are made in the BAEBBR VAP to correct EBBR calculations when the Bowen ratio is near -1). Aerodynamic fluxes will be measured using wind speed, wind direction, and temperature data from the MET system, but at heights appropriate for the bulk aerodynamic calculations. Sea surface temperature and downwelling radiation data are also necessary. Because merging of multiple datastreams is required for the BAF calculations, these fluxes will be calculated in a post-processing step.
    • Ocean Temperature
      Measurement of ocean surface temperature will be made using two possible instruments: a sea snake and/or the infrared thermometers for Sea Surface Temperature (IRTSST). The sea snake is an in situ device that provides an average temperature of the upper few millimeters of the ocean surface. To measure the ocean skin temperature remotely, two IRTs will be mounted orthogonally to each other, one pointed up at 45 degrees (estimates sky radiation reflected from the ocean surface) and one pointed down toward the ocean surface at a 45-degree angle. The sea surface temperature will be calculated in a post-processing step.

    Radiometry

    • Portable Radiation Measurement Package (PRP2) & Sun Pyranometer (SPN)
      The PRP2 is an instrument that allows for the relaxation of some stability requirements of a ship-based deployment. It consists of an unshaded PSP and PIR along with a Fast Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (FRSR), similar to the ARM-standard multifilter rotating shadow band radiometer and a Sun Pyrometer. A second PRP2 is available for deployment in case of shading issues with ship infrastructure. The second PRP2 only consists of an unshaded PSP and PIR along with a Sun Pyranometer (SPN).