Instrument : Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure Sensors (THWAPS)

Instrument Categories
Surface Meteorology

Picture of the Temperature, Humidity, Wind, and Pressure System (THWAPS)

General Overview

The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure system (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS) launches. THWAPS are located adjacent to BBSS launch sites at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility and its four boundary facilities. The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments intended to provide accurate measurements of meteorological conditions near the surface. Although the primary use of the system is to provide accurate surface reference values of temperature, pressure, relative humidity (RH), and wind velocity for comparison with radiosonde readings, the system includes a data logger to record time series of the measured variables.

The THWAPS system is not generally used as a surface meteorological measurement system. Many of the variables measured do not conform to WMO standards for surface meteorological measurements. Instead, the THWAPS system is used to gather reference values for the BBSS at the SGP sites.

Output Datastreams

  • thwaps : Temperature, humidity, winds and pressure system (THWAPS): meterological data

Primary Measurements

The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant.


Southern Great Plains
SGPB1 Browse Data Browse PlotsHillsboro, KS (Boundary) retired
SGPB4 Browse DataVici, OK (Boundary) retired
SGPB5 Browse Data Browse PlotsMorris, OK (Boundary) retired
SGPB6 Browse DataPurcell, OK (Boundary) retired
SGPC1 Browse DataCentral Facility, Lamont, OK
 retired = Originating instrument has been retired at this location


Brian Ermold
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
(509) 375-2277

Jenni Kyrouac
Argonne National Laboratory