Instrument : Balloon-Borne Sounding System (SONDE)
The balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) provides in situ measurements (vertical profiles) of both the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere, and the wind speed and direction. During some field campaigns, sonde operations from multiple stations around a central location with baseline measurements, like a mobile facility, can provide important constraints for model simulations. At the ARM sites, sondes are launched at the following intervals:
- ENA Graciosa Island, Azores: 2 times per day
- NSA Barrow, Alaska: 2 times per day
- SGP: 2 times per day
- TWP Manus, PNG: 2 times per day
- ARM Mobile Facilities: Each campaign sets the frequency; usually 4 times per day and as many as 8 per day.
Output Value-Added Products
This instrument is an input to the following value-added products, which provide improved measurements or derived quantities.
- lssonde : BBSS: derived, relative humidity scaled with MWR
- sonde : Balloon-borne Sounding System (BBSS): meterological data profile
- sondewnpn : Balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS): Vaisala-processed winds, press., temp, &RH
- sondewnpr : Balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS): Vaisala winds, research press., temp, &RH
- sondewrpn : Balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS): research winds, Vaisala press., temp, &RH
- sondewrpr : Balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS): research-mode winds, presssure, temp, &RH
The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant.